Scaffolding . This is a provisional construction with which bridges, walkways or platforms are made supported by wood or steel (In Asia bamboo is used). It is currently made prefabricated and modular. They are made to allow the access of the construction workers as well as the material in all the points of the building that is under construction or in rehabilitation of facades.
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- 1 Scaffolding
- 2 Features
- 3 Classification and use
- 1 Use
- 4 types of scaffolding
- 1 Folding scaffolding
- 2 Stair Towers
- 3 Roof scaffolding
- 4 Modular walkways or bridges
- 5 Classification
- 6 Security
- 7 Use
- 8 Source
- 9 External Links
Scaffolding are provisional structures of a usual maximum height of 30 m, although in many cases it is exceeded, which serve to support the different work platforms located at different heights; they fulfill according to the cases functions of service, load and protection. The different parts that make up a fixed scaffolding prefabricated modular system.
Scaffolding can reach different heights, reaching up to thirty meters, and even more. Depending on the complexity they usually have an assembly plan.
Classification and use
These scaffolds are classified into six classes taking into account the loads that must be supported by the work platforms, whether they are uniformly distributed or concentrated on a given surface. (Standard UNE 76-502-90).
Both the platforms and their corresponding supports must be able to withstand the loads specified in Table 1, taking into account that no platform should have a resistance capacity lower than that indicated for class 2 scaffolding with the following considerations:
- Its maximum arrow must not exceed 1/100 of the separation between supports when subjected to a concentrated load on a surface of 500 x 500 mm
- If the separation between supports is 2 m or more and one of them is subjected to a concentrated load on a surface of 500 x 500 mm 2, the maximum level difference between two adjacent platforms, one loaded and one not, shall not exceed 20 mm
Depending on the classification given, class 1, 2 and 3 scaffolds are used for cleaning, painting, carpentry, roofing, facade cladding, sanitation and in general industry for various work at height.
Class 4, 5 and 6 scaffolding are protective scaffolding, although they are also used for concrete or wall work, facade rehabilitation, industrial constructions and in other cases that require a wide scaffold with a large load capacity.
Types of scaffolding
There are several types of scaffolding that allow us to perform different tasks, since there is a scaffold for every need; we have among them the access towers, and the scaffolding that are installed outside any construction. The particularity of them is that they can reach great heights and were specially designed to work in large and tall buildings.
In the case of scaffolds made with prefabricated elements, they are usually located on land such as land or floor and are not able to exceed 6 meters in height; These scaffolds are ideal for working in short buildings that do not require many masonry maneuvers . Finally, within the classification, we have what are called suspended platforms, these are the most complete since they are able to vary their level manually, although there are automated models. Automated models can change the height and suspension points using a remote control; These scaffolds are mainly used in maintenance tasks.
APW type scaffolds are made through aluminum tubes and are considered the most reliable in Europe, their racks have a coupling system based on a cylindrical head that can be secured through pins made entirely to provide our safety. This type of scaffolding is mainly used in masonry , painting work, renovations, etc; especially where the material is exposed to various erosions.
This kind of scaffolding made with a high strength system since they have a special alloy tube that allows a smaller passage for the same amount of load. All components of these scaffolds have a polished finish and ultra-fast type head couplings which do not have the need to use pins to guarantee our safety. By carrying so many amounts of advantages, these scaffolding become the most expensive but the safest in the market.
Although we have to pay a little more, it is important that when carrying out construction work, we begin by choosing a good support since without it we run many risks of performing work in harmful positions which can lead to a serious accident. That is why, before starting the work, the scaffolding and its corresponding stability must be tested.
Suspended or hanging platforms of variable level, usually have manual or motorized drive, for the change of height; The suspension points are high. They are usually used in the maintenance of buildings, glass cleaning, etc.
Scaffolds made of prefabricated elements, are usually supported on the ground, and reach up to six meters high.
Scaffolding installed abroad, similar to the previous ones, although they usually reach higher heights.
Folding scaffolding is probably the best solution for indoor access at working heights around 3 meters, thanks to the agility of movement and lightness that these aluminum structures allow .
These scaffolds have been replacing the borriquetas in all those environments where approved material is required according to current labor safety standards, but what really justifies the investment of the professional is increased productivity
There are essentially two types of visitation towers on the market equipped with stringers with convenient pedestrian access.
- Steel towers based on multidirectional scaffolding
- Aluminum towers
In Euroandamio we have both towers, but in this article we want to focus on the characteristics and advantages of aluminum towers. These visitation towers are based on the APW scaffolding in its 135 cm version. wide x 250 cm. long
Access to roofs and sloping surfaces is usually problematic with conventional scaffolding systems. Some solutions require very expensive and heavy structures that can compromise the roof’s own integrity, especially when it comes to historic buildings. Euroandamio has the solution through a simple system complementary to the well-known series of mobile towers APW. The system is based on an easel that is placed on the ridge
Modular walkways or bridges
There are situations in which access to certain surfaces is complicated by the presence of obstacles that interfere with the vertical scaffolding, such as stained glass, non-bearing ceilings or galleries that make the use of conventional scaffolding unadvisable or too expensive. Euroandamio provides a solution in these cases through the use of walkways or modular bridges that lie between two mobile APW aluminum towers. The catwalk can reach a free light
In Spain there is a standard: UNE 76-502-90 in charge of classifying scaffolding according to certain operating parameters such as maximum load, distribution along platforms, etc. This standard establishes six classes of scaffolding, classified according to the type of work assigned: Light scaffolding is suitable for cleaning, painting, carpentry , facade cladding, roofing, sanitation and industry in general for various work at height .
Heavy scaffolds are protective scaffolding, although they are also used in jobs that handle concrete or on the walls, facade rehabilitation, various industrial constructions and in any other case that requires a scaffold with a large tray with a large load capacity.
Mobile scaffolding are light scaffolding, usually made of aluminum, which have wheels at the base that allow their movement. Its main advantages are its ease of transport to the place of employment, its rapidity of assembly and its mobility. They are used as an alternative to larger installations in the form of fixed scaffolding, being able to cover the same work surface but with a cost of assembly and much lower disassembly. On the contrary, fixed scaffolds have multiple work platforms that allow several operators to work simultaneously. They comply with strict constructive safety regulations and are equipped with elements such as skirting boards, to ensure the integrity of both the workers who work in them (railings, hatches, etc.) and the people who circulate in the vicinity of them (skirting boards, signaling, etc.) The wheels have brakes and mechanisms leveling to save small slopes. Properly secured and ballasted allow working at heights of up to fourteen meters.
Zipper scaffolding allows the work on the facade with different configurations to cover up to 3000 m2 of facade and load up to 1500 kg. Another advantage is the speed of assembly, being able to cover a surface of 30 x 20 meters in a single day with two assemblers. There are different combinations: in a single mast up to 10 horizontal meters of facade and in two masts up to 30 horizontal meters of facade, in both cases they reach 100 meters high.
The elements to consider with regard to scaffolding are:
- That they do not unfold or move accidentally. For this, the support elements are monitored as well as the load and distribution specifications of the tools. Scaffolding must be monitored and supervised by qualified personnel.
- Scaffolding dimensioning. In accordance with the tasks to be performed and with the permissible load conditions.
- Signaling of the unmounted parts of the scaffolding.
- That do not cause damage to workers and pedestrians. They are usually quilted with soft materials, and the protruding elements (susceptible to causing wounds) removed from the movement path.
- Location of fall arrest systems and suspension elements.
- Scaffolding is usually used by workers when carrying out the construction process, they are also used to support materials or tools. Scaffolding are structures that allow us to develop multiple activities such as construction concerns as internal facade reform processes; But in turn scaffolding must be constructed of solid materials to avoid any type of accident.
- In particular it is essential that these scaffolds are not accidentally deployed, this could cause those who use severe bodily harm. This is why it is recommended to monitor the support elements, as well as the weight of the tools we are using to work on them. The dimensions of the scaffolding also play a fundamental role at the time of its correct use and safety, the dimensions of these must be admissible, we cannot work with a short scaffold if we need to reach high areas, this would lead to an imminent accident.
- Anyway, Although we use the scaffolds correctly it is necessary that we look for adequate protection systems for a possible fall, these systems are called antacids, or suspension elements. In the event that we do not want to work using scaffolding, it is important to point out that they are not being employed there; This will also prevent possible accidents.