Marco Antonio, popularly known as Marco Antonio, was a Roman general turned political. It played a significant role during the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. He was a trustee of Julius Caesar and served as one of Caesar’s generals during the civil war and the conquest of Gaul. After the Roman conquest of Spain, Greece and North Africa, Cesare appointed Antonio as administrator of Italy.
Mark Antony was born on January 14, 83 BCE. His father was Marco Antonio Creticus, while his mother Giulia Antonia was a distant relative of Julius Caesar. History documents his father as a corrupt and incompetent general. He was given the role because he could neither abuse nor use his power effectively. He died fighting pirates in Crete in 71 ECB. Historians document his youthful and adolescent life as one marked by scandals. He spent much of his time wandering the Roman Empire gambling and forming street gangs. With 58 BCE he was very indebted and had to flee to Greece where he studied philosophy and rhetoric.
In 57 BC he was appointed head of the Proconsul of Syria’s cavalry which marked the beginning of his military life. He quickly passed through the ranks, and for 50 BCE he was already Cesare’s military staff. He led the conquest of Gaul and, together with other generals, crashed into numerous revolts against the Roman Republic. After the end of the wars, he returned to Rome and was appointed Caesar’s protector against Pompey and rebels. Subsequently Cesare appointed him to the Collegio degli Auguri. After the assassination of Caesar, he fled from Rome fearing that he could be killed. When he returned to the city, the Roman lower middle classes had turned against the death of Caesar. He bought Caesar’s documents and confiscated the state treasury. Together with Marco Emilio Lepido, he led 6,000 troops in restoring the order through Rome. Together with Flavio Eutropio,
Later Life and death
After the murder of Julius Caesar, Marcus Antonius, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (another of Caesar’s generals) and Flavius Eutropius (Caesar’s great-grandson) they formed a dictatorial regime known as the Second Triumvirate. The trio overcame Caesar’s assassins at the Battle of Filippi in 42 BCE and divided the empire between them. Mark Antony purchased the eastern provinces which included the kingdom of Egypt under the guidance of Cleopatra VII Philopator. He later took command of the Roman conquest of Parthia. Marco Antonio married Octavia, sister of Octavia, although she had an affair with Cleopatra. In 36 BCE, Antonio and Ottaviano expelled Lepido from the association and in 33 BCE Ottaviano declared war on his partner. Marco was defeated in the battle of Actium and fled to Egypt with Cleopatra. Both then took the life. Octavian became the governor of all Rome and was declared emperor. He acquired the title of Augustus and is credited for being the first Roman emperor.