The intelligence quotient (IQ) is the only scale currently available to measure the intellectual capacity of a person, even though it goes far beyond logical and mathematical thinking, since at present, creative thinking must be added to mental efficiency and productive skills for the arts of any kind, including sports, and in more general terms the ability to adapt to the environment in which one operates.
That is why a high IQ is not enough to determine that a person is gifted. Hence, this scale, based on the quotient between mental and chronological age, should be understood as a scale that determines the extent to which a person is intellectually gifted, limiting this concept especially to the logical and mathematical abilities of abstract thinking:
- Very superior. IQ equal to or greater than 130. 2.2% of the population is at this level.
- Superior. IQ from 120 to 129. It represents 6.7% of the population.
- Normal-bright. IQ from 110 to 119. So is 16.1% of the population.
- Average. IQ of 90-109. In this interval is found 50% of the population.
- Normal-low. IQ of 80-89. Defines 16.1% of the population.
- Frontier. IQ of 70-79. 6.7% of the population complies with it.
- Mentally deficient. IQ less than or equal to 69. 2.2% of the population is in this situation.
The measurement of IQ was initially developed in order to evaluate mainly mental disorders related to intellectual capacity, although it was later applied for educational purposes trying to start from objective criteria to evaluate the aptitudes of students. But it was soon shown that IC did not guarantee access to the best jobs. Cognitive abilities were not enough to stand out in the workplace, but there were other factors that were equally or more important, such as the management of social relationships, emotions or stress, which define the ability to adapt to different scenarios, situations and teams of work.
Today psychologists and neuroscientists have adopted a more Darwinian conception of what intellectual capacity is, defining it as the ability of a person to adapt to the environment in which he operates in the most effective way, which entails great flexibility and capacity for reaction to different situations and under different conditions and demands.