When we talk about human societies and their complex realities, we must mention the school. School is one of the most important social institutions , much more recent than others such as the family or the State and completely necessary to favor the insertion of children in society as responsible adults and capable of coexisting with others despite the differences.
School is the environment where people learn different areas of knowledge and human knowledge ranging from scientific questions such as physics, biology, mathematics , through social issues such as history, literature, art, to practical questions such as technology, physical education, etc. This is part of the human cultural heritage that has been created over time and is considered essential enough to be transmitted and recovered from generation to generation. The school has emerged as such, with the objective mentioned in the mid-19th century when the full inclusion of the majority of the working population that did not have access to hegemonic education and culture was necessary.
The school: its internal functioning and its characteristics. Can we speak of a single form of schooling?
School varies greatly from society to society and from country to country. This is so because each region establishes its own educational system and organizes the operation of its own school institutions according to its needs or interests.
However, a characteristic common to all schools is that they always fulfill the initiating role of the person in the school, educational and academic environment. In this sense, the school differs, for example, from the university in the fact that in the former, attendance is usually compulsory so that all children acquire the same level of knowledge and knowledge that make them homogeneous in terms of skills and content.
A school to live together: when we learn to be part of the society in which we live
However, the school is not only relevant for the transmission of knowledge and knowledge. We can say that one of the main and hidden functions of the school is to allow assistants (in most cases boys and teenagers, unless we talk about schools in adult education) to socialize with peers, with people of the same age , evolutionary and emotional level, etc.
In this way, it is clear that being part of the school institution allows us to learn in a simplified way what it is to live in society : adapt to rules, comply with the rules of behavior, learn to live with those who may not feel close, feel part of of a community and work permanently for their benefit, etc.
Many times, coexistence in school is what makes the individual separate from the family in a positive sense, being able to establish ties outside the endogamous family environment, ties that on numerous occasions are maintained throughout life by be relationships that are formed in very significant times for the person. The school also supposes sanctions and punishments in case the norms of behavior and coexistence are not complied with, as also happens in the social reality.
The school as a center of power and inequality
Those who are critical of the school institution as it works today, point to another element common to all schools: the presence of an uneven dynamic between those who have the knowledge (teachers, teachers, professors) and those who consider themselves in the learning process (students , students). This generates a constant power relationship that can develop in many ways, both positive and negative.
Thus, the school, for those who are critical of it, establishes a difficult reality to break, which means that students never have the power to build their own learning or select what they want to study. New visions emerge about the role that the school must fulfill in the new century: stimulation of the student’s desire and a greater relationship of equity between students and teachers, who are also considered capable of learning and correcting their actions or strategies.