Imperialism is generally defined as the practice of increasing the power of authority in a country by territorial conquest or by determining the economic and political domination of other countries which are not its colonies. In the world of history, this group expands the territory and dominates the other groups, and competes against in all aspects both food, defense forces to existing resources.
Many people view imprealism as a system with a negative connotation. Why? because Imperialism gives the effect of suffering because domination that occurs indirectly causes the dominant groups often to consider themselves as superior and to undermine other groups.
Imperialism always involves the use of power, both military power and finer types of power. However, an interesting aspect of the imperialist system is that authorities, both traditional and modern, also tend to assume that they are spreading the order, morality, religion and true civilization.
Imperialism is interpreted differently by experts, including:
- Alan Bullock (1986)
“Imperialism is a conquest of citizens to other regions by using the rule of law through a power and exploiting the economy and finance.”
“Imperialism is a system that controls the economies of other nations or countries. Besides that, imperialism also becomes a capitalism which means an effort to control other countries. “
- Henry Pratt Fairchild (1997)
“Imperialism is a way to expand the country to other countries.”
From this understanding, we can conclude that imprealism is an understanding or system in which a state controls other countries by means of regional power and control.
History of Imperialism
Imperialism certainly did not appear suddenly. Imprealism arises due to the arrival of the ‘English’ people who consider them to be the most powerful (Greater Britain) because they have dominated and colonized other countries in Asia and Africa.
They assume that colonialism aims to build a colonized society that is considered still lagging behind and with a view to the good of the world. Imperialism is more inclined to the government system and economic and political relations of large and powerful countries, as well as to control other countries that are considered disadvantaged and poor with a view to exploiting the resources in the country to increase the wealth and power of the colonial state.
Imperialism emphasizes the characteristics of excellence (hegemony) by one country over another. The main goal is to increase economic output. The imperialist countries want to benefit from the countries they control (jajah) because their country’s economic resources are insufficient.
In addition to economic factors, there is a belief that one country is more noble or better than another country called ethnocentrism. Examples are the Germans (Aryans) and Italians. Another factor that can cause the rise of imperalism is the feeling of wanting to reach the level of a great nation and be able to rule the world, for example, the basis of Japanese imperialism.
Imperialism is based on the aim of spreading Western ideas and culture throughout the world. Therefore, imperalism is not only considered as an oppression of the colony but can also be 3 factors driving renewal that can contribute towards the development of a country such as education, health, legislation and the government system. The following are the factors driving the rise of imperialism including:
- Economic factors
- Factors of natural resources and human resources
- Factors want to expand the colony
From these three factors, there are several aspects which are considered to be the basis of the birth of the imperial system in the world, namely:
- The desire to become a great nation compared to other countries
- Feeling as a special nation in the world (racial superiority).
- The desire to spread religion or ideology.
- Want to control the country with a geographical location that is considered profitable.
- There are economic factors such as the desire to gain wealth, want to participate in world trade, the desire to control trade, and guarantee the development of industry.
Modern imperialism itself began to develop in the 1500 AD century until the occurrence of the second world war ended, around 1942. One of the countries that became the pioneers of the birth of imperalism was the United Kingdom. It was from England that it started into an industrial revolution in which industrial development took place on a large scale.
The purpose of Imperialism
Imprealism has a main goal which is to rule the world in a politically organized way. In general, there are two types of imprealism, namely ancient imprealism and modern imprealism. Ancient imprealism occurred in 1500 AD where imperialism led to the meaning of the expansion of territory carried out by one country to another country. Examples of countries that establish ancient imperialism are portuguese and spanish. While modern imperialism began around the 1500 AD century until the second world war ended, around 1942.
Types of types of imperialism
The system of Imperialism itself has a variety. Here are the types of imprealism by region, including:
- Political Imperialism
Political imprealism is a type of imperialism which means a movement that is carried out as a means to control from the political side. An example is a celebration at a democratic party.
- Economic Imperialism
Economic imperialism is a movement made to control various economic channels such as capital, stocks, industry and others.
- Cultural Imperialism
Cultural imperialism is imperialism which means a behavior that dominates the souls of other countries. Cultural imperialism is more inclined to the mastery of a country’s culture and soul over another country.
- Military Imperialism
Military imperialism is a type of imperialism in which a country controls a territory by carrying out military actions or in the form of threats. There are many examples of military imperialism, such as those in Palaestina which are still being explored by Israel for territorial control.
Impact of Imperialism
- Political Impact
In the political field, imperialism has an impact where the emergence of a colony then emerges a colonial war, a political blackmail. From some of these political impacts, another impact will emerge, namely the occurrence of world political warfare.
- Economic consequences
While in the economic field, imperialism has consequences or impacts including:
- Countries that adhere to the imperialist system can increase wealth, while countries that are in the colonies experience poverty.
- Countries that adhere to the imperialist system will grow with industries that are growing rapidly, while the colony is dead.
- Imperealism applied by a country has quite an influence on the expansion of the world of trade.
- Countries that implement the imperialist system will be stronger in the economic field, while the economies of the colonies will sink.
- Social impact
The imperial economic system is very influential in social terms, including the following:
- Countries with an imperialist system can live in luxury and wealth, while their regions or colonies suffer from lack of exploitation by the colonial state.
- In social terms, the imperialist state is progressing while the colonies are experiencing a setback in various fields and aspects of life.
- The self-esteem of the imperialist state is increasing while the colonial state has decreased self-esteem.
- In the social aspect, the colonial state did not have any rights because the rights resided in the colonialist or imperialist state.
Influence of the Development of Imperialism in Indonesia
Imperialism was also developing in Indonesia and had an influence on several aspects. Following is the influence of the development of Imperialism in Indonesia.
In the political sphere, influential imperialism such as the election of the regent is carried on from generation to generation and will receive tribute from the people of the region.
In the economic field, imperialism has an influence where the decline of this country’s trade decline in the international arena.
Whereas in the field of culture, imperialism has a bearing on the traditional and cultural values that exist in some regions in Indonesia. For example, customary procedures in the kingdom turn out to be simpler.
That is the full explanation and description of the meaning, purpose and impact of imperialism to the influence of the development of imperialism in Indonesia. May be useful!!