In the community environment, it is necessary to have rules that are an oversight with the aim of regulating the community to act and behave in accordance with existing social norms. The process and method of supervision that is called social control .
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Definition of Social Control
Social control can also be interpreted as a process or way that is educational, invites and even forces the community to comply with the social rules that apply in the environment.
In addition to this understanding, several experts also expressed their opinions on social control, as follows:
- Joseph S. Roucek
“Social control is a planned and unplanned process that is educational, encouraging, even forcing all citizens to comply with applicable social rules.”
- Soetandyo Wignyo Subroto
“Social control is a sanction, which is a form of suffering that is deliberately given by the community (if the behavior and actions are not in accordance with the norms that apply in society).”
- Peter L. Berger
“Social control is a variety of methods used by the community to curb dissident members.”
“Social control is a series of ways and processes chosen by a group of people or society, so that its members can act in accordance with the expectations of the group or community.”
Characteristics of Social Control
In a social control has special characteristics including:
- A way or method or step to bring order to society / individuals.
- This social control can be done by individuals against individuals, groups with groups or individuals with groups.
- Social control has the aim to achieve harmony between stability and the changes that occur in a society.
- Social control is carried out in a reciprocal way although it is not realized by both parties, namely individuals and groups.
The nature of Social Control
The existing social controls in society have the following characteristics:
Preferential nature means control carried out before the occurrence of deviations from the values and social norms prevailing in society. It can also be said that these preventive measures are preventive measures. For example, Police Officers who reprimand motorized motorists who do not wear helmets, which prevents before an accident.
Curative nature is to carry out controls that are carried out right when social deviations occur. For example, a teacher reprimands a student who is caught cheating on a test.
Control that is repressive is a control that has the aim to restore harmony that was lost due to an offense. For example, a teacher gives double the extra homework (homework) when he knows his students do not do the homework given to him.
The Purpose of Social Control
The social control carried out certainly has a purpose, including the following:
- Maintain social order.
The general goal of social control is to maintain social order in the community. Maintaining this social order can be done one way by instilling social values and norms through educational institutions and family education.
- Preventing irregularities
Social control has the aim to prevent deviations from the values or norms that exist in society.
- Develop a culture of shame.
Social control also aims to instill ‘shame’ when making mistakes or deviations.
When someone makes a mistake the community environment will respond negatively both through reproach, displeasure and so forth. From there the control functions as a planter ‘shame’ so as to prevent someone to make deviations.
- Create and enforce the legal system.
In addition to maintaining social order, social control also aims to create and enforce a strict legal system for individuals who commit social deviations.
Stages of Social Control
In carrying out social control, there are stages that must be passed, including:
- The socialization stage, this stage is marked by the process of introducing values and norms that apply in society.
- The stage of social emphasis, at this stage the emphasis is placed on the community so that it is expected to create a society that is stable and runs according to prevailing norms. At this stage it is usually accompanied by sanctions for perpetrators of social deviation.
- The power approach stage, this stage is carried out by individuals or groups who have more power over the perpetrators of social deviation. This stage is carried out if the previous stages are not capable of being carried out as social control.
Forms of Social Control
In social life, social control can take many forms. The following is a form of social control that is commonly carried out within the community.
Non-Formal Social Control
- Gossip or rumor
Usually when there are social deviations, the first form of control that occurs is gossip or rumor and this is done unplanned and in private.
Usually in addition to gossip, social deviations will be accompanied by a reprimand. Reprimand in this case can be done by anyone. It can be between community members, between teacher and student, village head and community and so on. For example, a written warning from the Head of School for teachers or students who commit violations at school.
Mockery is to talk about someone using the figure of speech, which generally has a negative connotation. Mockery can be used as a way of social control in the event of social deviations such as ridicule because it has done mischief, and so on.
Intimidation is a threat or an attempt to pressure others to feel afraid. This way of intimidation can also be used as a way of social control to threaten individuals or groups who violate norms. Example. threatened to report the police if a member of the community would hold a drug party or alcohol.
Exclusion or ostrasism is the act of severing social relations by assuming someone is not in his environment. This exclusion is usually done if someone is carrying out heavy social storage such as immoral acts, stealing, violence and so forth.
Formal Social Control
Education is a form of formal control where through education, a person can be nurtured and directed and influence the formation of attitudes and actions taken.
Like education , religion is a form of formal control in which religion can influence the attitudes and behavior of its adherents in social life. Religion basically contains commands, prohibitions, and suggestions for adherents in living life and behaving and acting in society.
Formally social control is further through punishment where the existence of harsh penalties and sanctions will deter perpetrators of irregularities and can also prevent social irregularities.