Friends of the science portal, we have previously explored many things about Cell Structure and Function . To add to our knowledge of Biology, this time we will continue to study it. Discussion of Biology material that will be discussed about the motion system in humans.
What do you understand about the human motion system? What are the human motion systems? The discussion of the motion system in humans is divided into three, namely bones, muscles, and abnormalities . The following will be explained further about the human motion system, pay close attention to the explanation below.
The human body, basically consists of skeletal, muscle, and skin. These three things are strong but flexible buildings. Bones are passive motors. That is because it can only move if it is moved by a muscle.
While the muscles are active means of motion. This is because the muscles can contract and relax. The ability of muscles to contract and relax is finally able to move bones due to muscle having muscle fibers called myofibrils.
Then, in myofibril there is a contraction protein consisting of actin and myosin. There are 206 human bones that form the skeleton, as well as the body support. Besides being used as a means of movement, the bones also function as a protective internal organ.
Furthermore, bone also functions as a manufacturer of blood cells. Apart from bones, muscles also have a role in moving bones by contraction and get energy in the form of ATP.
After understanding about bone function, then how is the bone formed?
Bone Formation Process (ossification)
The bones that make up the body’s skeleton are formed since the embryo. At the time of the embryo, bone is composed of mesodern embryonal tissue in the form of mesenchymal cells.
Furthermore, these mesenchymal cells subsequently form bone cell candidates called osteogenics. Osteogenik then grows into young bone cells called osteoblasts.
In addition to osteoblasts there are also osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are large cells with many nuclei. Osteoclasts have a function to move the matrix, and make cavities to form new bone.
Furthermore, the cavity is filled with osteoblasts or bone-forming cells that form osteocytes from the inside towards the outside. These osteocytes are arranged concentrically to form layers or lamellae in which the Haversi system is located in the middle.
Then, around the bone cells contain protein compounds which will later become a bone matrix. Then, the addition of lime and phosphorus compounds that will cause bones to become hard.
The reinforcement process is called ossification . Meanwhile, the addition of calcium which can cause bones to become hard is called classification.
Such is the explanation of bone formation. Next will be explained about the types of bones below.
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Bone in the human body can be divided into two, namely cartilage and hard bone. Cartilage found in adults can be found in the chakra epiphyte of flat bones, between vertebral bones, joints of bones, between ribs and chest, nasal bones and ear bones.
The hard bone based on the matrix density structure is then divided into two. Which consists of compact bone and sponge bone.
Then, based on its shape, bones can be divided into three. The bones consist of pipe bones, flat bones and short bones.
The types of bones can be described in the column below
|Pipe Bones||Flatbones||Short bones|
Base of the arm
Then, the picture below shows the bone structure and parts of the pipe bone .
Pipe bones are divided into three parts. These parts are the middle part which is called diaphyses, both ends are called epiphytes, and between epiphytes and diaphyses there is a section called the epiphyte chakra.
This epiphyte chakra consists of cartilage. This is an area of elongated growth in the bone that can cause height gain in humans.
The middle part of the bone pipe or diaphise there is bone marrow. Bone marrow is a collection of blood vessels and nerves, bone marrow in the form of red and yellow bone marrow.
Grolier in Susilowarno states that red marrow as a place of formation of red blood cells or erythrocytes. While the yellow marrow is a place of formation of fat cells.
Cartilage or cartilage. This cartilage has flexible or elastic properties. In adults, cartilage can be found in the ear, tip of the nose, and vertebrae between the spine.
This cartilage is composed by cartilage cells called chondrocytes. Mature chondrocytes are formed from young cartilage cells called chondroblasts. This condroblast is in the cartilage membrane or pericondrium. This condroblast surrounds cartilage in adults.
Chondrocytes are large, round cells with a clear nucleus and two or more nucleoli or daughter nuclei. This chondrocyte is in the spaces in the cartilage matrix called lakuna.
Matrix in cartilage is generally in the form of homogeneous and clear hyaline cartilako. The lakuna walls thicken to form prone capsules.
A clear colored room is seen between the capsule and cell walls which can cause shrinkage of chondrocytes during their life which is immediately broken down to form mature chondrocytes.
Then, in a single lakuna there are generally two cartilage cells. However, sometimes there are three, four or more cells in a lakuna.
This collection of cells is called a nest cell or isogenic cells. Multiple cells in a lacuna are sister cells from the derivation of a single chondroblast cell.
Cavendish in Susilowarno states that cartilage is divided into hyaline, fiber or fibrous cartilage, and elastin. Each of these can be explained below
Hyaline cartilage. The word hyaline or hyalin has a meaning like glass. Hyaline cartilage has a bluish white color and in a fresh state looks clear. These chondrocytes are in slick-walled lacuna on the bone matrix.
Hyaline cartilage is in: first , all skeletal fetuses that have not become bone, second , rib cartilage, third , joint cartilage in the joints, fourth , nasal cartilage, trachea, and bronchus.
Fiber or fibrous cartilage. Fiber cartilage has a whitish opaque color and has hard properties. The number of cells – cells smaller and stand alone or in groups.
Fiber cartilage is surrounded by a capsule of cartilage matrix. Fiber cartilage can be found in spinal segments.
Elastin cartilage. This elastin cartilage has a yellowish opaque color, has flexible and elastic properties. The cells are the same as hyaline cartilage cells and can stand alone or in groups.
Then, this elastin cartilage can be found in the outer ear and epigiotis or cartilage that closes by a gap leading to the trachea.
After understanding about the types of bones. Next will be explained about the frame system in the next sub-chapter.
Human Order System
This sub-section will discuss skeletal functions, types of skeleton, and joints. Each of these will be explained below
Frame function. The skeletal system in the human body as a component of the motion system has functions that can be explained as follows.
- Immunological, because bone fronds form B lymphocytes which can synthesize antibodies for the human immune system.
- Protection, which is intended as protecting the body’s organs in the weak.
- Formation of body shape in which the body’s framework as supporting and giving body shape.
- Joint formation, in which the frame provides a lever system that is driven by the work of the muscles attached to it or as a passive locomotor.
- Hemopoesis, this skeleton produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in certain bone marrow.
- Storage of calcium, the framework functions as a reservoir of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and other elements.
Thus the explanation of the six functions of the skeleton, will then be explained about the types of bones making up the skeleton.
The skeletal system in humans gives human body shape. Where the skeletal system in humans can be seen in the picture below
Skeletal systems in humans can be grouped into two groups. Which consists of axial or axial bone and additional bone or appendiculent. Below will be explained about the kinds of bones formed in the table to make it easier for you to understand.
|Bone Name||amount||Kind of Bones|
|Skull||28 pieces||· Chin bone
· Nose bone
· Forehead or frontal bone
· Tonia bone or pariental
· Cheekbones or temporal
· Occipetal bone
· Maxilla or maxilla
· Lower jawbone or mandible
|Vertebrae||33 pieces||· Cervical or cervical bones consisting of seven pieces
· A backbone or thorax consisting of twelve pieces
· Lumbar or bone consisting of five pieces
· Sacrum bones consist of five pieces
· Coccyx or coccyx consisting of four pieces
· A true rib consisting of seven pieces
· Fake ribs consisting of three pairs
· Flying ribs consisting of two pairs
|Rib||12 pairs||· The head, body, and sword level|
|Bone Name||amount||Kind of Bones|
|1. Chest bone||1 piece|
|2. Upper limbs||5 kinds||Consists of the upper arm or humerus, forearm which is divided into cubits and leverage, wrists or carpal, palms or metacarpals, finger joints or palanges|
|3. Lower limbs||7 kinds||Consists of the thigh or femur, shell or patella, shin or tibia, calf or fibula, ankle or tarsal joint, finger joint or palanges, sole of foot|
Thus the explanation of the bones that make up the skeleton in humans. Next, it is explained about bone joints.
The bones that make up the skeletal system are interconnected with each other. The relationship between bones is called joints or articulation. In order to strengthen the joints and facilitate movement, several supporting components are needed.
These supporting components consist of ligaments, joint capsules, synovial fluid, and hyaline cartilage. Each component can be explained as follows.
- Hyaline cartilage is cartilage tissue that covers both ends of the bones that form the joints. This protection is important to use to prevent harsh impacts.
- Synovial fluid is a lubricating fluid at the ends of the bones in the joint capsule.
- Ligaments are connective tissue that is used to bind the outer ends of the bones that form joints. Then, prevent changes in bone position or dislocation.
- Joint capsules are layers of fibers that function to coat the joints and connect the two bones that form joints. In the joints that have joint capsules there is a cavity.
Furthermore, based on the possible movements that are raised, the joints can be divided into three types, namely diatrosis, amfiartosis, and sinartrosis. The difference between the three movements can be explained below.
Arthritis . This arthritis is very free movement. An example of arthritis is as follows. First, the hinge joint consisting of elbows, knees, and finger bones. Second, the saddle joint consists of the thumb, intermacarpal and carpal.
Third, the rotary joint consists of skull bones with atlases, upper arms with leverage. Fourth, the joints glide on the vertebrae. Fifth, the bullet joint consists of arm bones with shoulder blades, bones with hip bones.
Amfiartrosis . Amfiartrosis is very little or limited movement. Kinds and examples of amfiartrosis can be divided into joints between the ribs and spine.
Sinartrosis . Sinartrosis may not have movement. The types and examples of synarthrosis can be explained as follows. Sinartrosis synfibrosis or connecting connective tissue, for example the relationship between skull bones.
Then, synaptrosis synondrosis or connecting cartilage, for example the relationship between ribs and sternum.
After learning about all things related to bone, the next step is to explain the muscles in the sub-chapter below.
Muscles in the human body are known as meat. Muscle is a collection of muscle cells – the number of which is more than 600 kinds. Muscle is a rope that pulls bones so that it allows the emergence of movement.
Therefore, the muscles are called active motors. As an active means of movement, muscles have three characteristics consisting of contractability, extensibility, and elasticity. Each can be explained as follows.
Contractability is a muscle that has the ability to shorten from its original size or contraction.
Extensibility is a muscle’s ability to extend from its original size or known as relaxation.
Elasticity is a muscle that has the ability to get back to its original size.
After understanding about the characteristics of the muscles. Furthermore, it is explained about the types of muscles in the sub section below.
Muscle has several types. As a means of motion, structurally and functionally, muscles can be divided into three, namely smooth muscle, striated muscle, and heart muscle. In order to understand about the striated muscle, it must first be understood about its location.
Striated muscle . This striated muscle is attached to the skeleton so that it is often called the skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle consists of long cylindrical fibrous cells or sarcomeres. Where each long fiber contains a smaller bundle of long fibers called myofibrils.
Then, in myofibril there is a building like a pile of bricks called sarcomeres. In sarcomeres there are thick filaments which contain myosin protein. Where thick filaments overlap with thin filaments that contain actin proteins.
Every bundle in the muscle is covered by facasibility. Then, the muscle or flesh is wrapped in superficial fascia. Every skeletal or striated muscle cell has many nuclei that are scattered.
The size of these skeletal or striated muscle cells is 1 mm-30 mm in length with a diameter of 10-100 mm. Then, muscle fibers are easily seen because they are arranged in a cross-sectional or heterogeneous fiber. The working nature of this skeletal or striated muscle cell is conscious or voluntary so that the reaction to stimuli is very fast.
Smooth muscle . Smooth muscle can be found in internal organs such as the intestine and respiratory tract. Plain muscle only has this one in the middle. The size of this smooth muscle is 0.02 – 0.5 mm in length, with a diameter of 8-10 mm.
Muscle fibers are difficult to see. This is due to the muscle fibers are arranged parallel or homogeneous. The working nature of smooth muscle is unconscious or involuntary. Then, the reaction to stimuli is slow.
Heart muscle . This heart muscle is located in the heart wall. The characteristics of the heart muscle has a branching called synsitium.
The structure owned by the heart muscle is like a striated muscle. However it contains one and works unconsciously or involuntarily. The length of the heart muscle is 0.06-0.08 with a diameter of 10-15 mm.
Then, the muscle fibers are easily visible. This is due to arranged heterogeneously. The reaction to rhythmic and automatic stimuli is faster than smooth muscle.
Thus the explanation of the striated muscle, smooth muscle, and heart muscle. Next how is the activity of the muscles?
Muscle activity . Muscle activity in moving bones by doing two ways, namely contraction and relaxation. The mechanism of muscle contraction begins with stimulation received by the nerve. Then, it is forwarded to the muscle in the sensitive part, namely acetyloline.
Furthermore, acetic acid will break down into acetyl and choline so that it can stimulate the formation of myogens. This myogen will stimulate actin and myosin to combine to form an actomyosin contraction protein so that the muscles can shorten or contract.
The mechanism of muscle contraction can be explained completely and sequentially can be explained as follows
First , the motor centers in the brain send to muscles through the motor nerves. Second , excitations that reach the end of the axon will then proceed to neuro humor or nerve hormones in the presence of acetylcholine to the muscle receptors.
Third , after arriving at the muscle receptors, energy is released to break down aceticol to acetyl and choline so that it can stimulate the formation of myogens. Then, the formation of myogen can stimulate the actin to move to join the myosin to form actomiosin, causing the H zone to chill.
The shrinking of the H zone can cause the muscles to shorten, enlarge, and harden, which is called contraction. Fourth, after the muscles contract the motor nerve endings release neurohumor neutralizing agent in the form of the enzyme cholinesteration and Mono Amine Oxide abbreviated as MAO.
Then, neutralization of neurohumor in the form of aceticoline causes actomyosin to separate into actin and myosin so that the H zone reopens. Lalyu muscles appear elongated and thinner and more tender. This situation is called relaxation according to Boisvert in Susilowarno.
Furthermore, the condition of muscles in a state of contraction and relaxation can be described as follows.
|Circumstances in muscle fibers||1. Miosin is outside the actin chamber
2. Actomyosin increases in length
3. Zone Z becomes shortened
4. Zone H becomes longer
5. Muscle size is longer than the original size
|1. Myosin shifts in the actin chamber
2. The length of the actomyosin is reduced
3. Z zone is getting longer
4. Zone H becomes shorter
Muscle contraction activity can take place, it is caused by the energy of the decomposition of ATP and creatin phosphate which does not require oxygen so it is called the anaerobic phase.
Furthermore, the breakdown of ATP and creatine phosphate can be explained as follows.
The decomposed energy from ATP and creatine phosphate above is only sufficient for muscle activity for 15 seconds. It’s like running a 100 meter spirit.
The energy produced from the breakdown of glycogen which can supply ATP in large quantities can be used for muscle activity for 30-40 seconds which is like running 400 meters.
Then, at the time of muscle relaxation, do energy synthesis activities. This energy synthesis requires oxygen so that it is called aerobic phase.
Muscle energy that is synthesized during relaxation is obtained from the storage of glucose in the muscles, namely glycogen. The scheme of the breakdown of glycogen into energy can be explained as follows
In the event of the breakdown of glycogen into energy obtained byproducts in the form of lactic acid. If there is enough oxygen, lactic acid in the body can be broken down into carbon dioxide and water so that it is not toxic to cells.
However, if there is insufficient oxygen available in the muscles, lactic acid will build up in the muscles and can cause muscle aches, rheumatic pain, and fatigue. Lactic acid content in large quantities can cause muscle cramps or spasms.
Furthermore, muscle attachment and type of muscle work. Muscles must be connected to the bone in order to move the bone. The connection that occurs between muscles and bones is called a tendon.
Based on how it is attached, the tendon is divided into two, namely origo and insertion. The explanation of each is as follows.
Origo is the end of a muscle attached to the bone and cannot move when the muscle contracts. Two-berorigo muscles are called biceps. While the three-berorigo muscle is called the triceps muscle.
Insertion is the end of a muscle attached to the bone and will move when the muscle contracts.
To get a certain type of motion and be able to return to its original position, at least two types of muscles are needed. More advanced, based on its work objectives, muscles are divided into antagonistic and synergistic muscles. The explanation of each of the two muscles is as follows.
Antagonistic muscle . Antagonistic muscles are two or more muscles that have opposite work goals. When one muscle contracts, the partner’s muscles relax or vice versa.
Examples of antagonistic muscles are the biceps and triceps. The biceps in the front of the upper arm with the triceps muscles in the upper arms of the back. The biceps muscles contract and the triceps muscle relaxes causing the forearm to lift or the hand to bend.
Then vice versa, if the biceps muscle relaxation and triceps contraction causes the forearm to be lowered or the hands to be straight.
Synergistic muscles . Synergistic muscles are two or more muscles that work together for the same purpose. Synergistic muscles will experience contraction and relaxation together.
Examples of synergistic muscles are the pronator quadratus and the pronator teres in causing intermediate movements or palm of the hand.
After understanding about the workings of muscles, the next will be explained about the types of bone movements along with the muscles below.
A kind of bone movement with muscles. Joints bring about a very varied motion that is controlled by muscles. The types of movements produced are as follows.
First, adduction and abduction . Adduction is a movement that approaches the body. While abduction is a movement that distances from the body. The example is pointing the finger and straightening the hand parallel to the axis of the body.
Second, supination and pronation . Supination is a gesture that raises your hand. Meanwhile, pronation is a gesture that turns the hand over.
Third, fluids and extensions . Flexion is a bending or bending motion. While the extension is a motion to straighten. Examples of this motion are movements caused by the knees, elbows, finger joints, and shoulders.
Fourth, elevation and depression . Elevation is a lifting motion. Meanwhile, depression is a lowering motion. The example of this motion is the movement of the lower jaw in opening and closing the mouth.
Fifth, inversion and eversion . Inversion is a movement to tilt or open your feet inward. While eversion is a movement to tilt your feet outwards.
Thus the explanation of the movement of bones with muscles. Furthermore, bones and muscles also experience abnormalities. In the next section we will explain the kinds of abnormalities of bones and muscles, which are as follows.
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Kinds – Kinds of Abnormalities of Muscle and Bone
Abnormalities or disorders in the human motion system can occur in bones and muscles. The disorder occurs as a result of excessive activity or load. In addition, the influence of vitamins or the occurrence of infections from microorganisms can also cause disruption in bones and muscles.
Disturbances in the skeletal system can occur due to physical disorders, physiological disorders, joint disorders, and disorders of the position in the spine. Furthermore, it can be explained below
Bone disorders . Is a disorder of cracks and fractures or fractures. Fractures are simple and complex. Fractures are simple if the fractured bone does not injure other organs around it.
Meanwhile, complex fractures if broken bones that cause muscle and skin injury. Then, greenstick is a partially fractured bone and not separated. Comminuted bone is fractured into several parts but still remains in the muscle.
Spinal disorders . This disorder is divided into scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis, and subluxation. The explanation is as follows.
Subluxation is a disorder of the spine in the neck segment so that the position of the head is pulled right or left. While lordosis is a disorder if the lumbar vertebrae or waist are pulled forward so that in an upright position, the head is pulled back.
Scoliosis is the spine curved to the side so that the body appears curved left or right. While kyphosis is a change in the direction of the curvature of the spine to the back so that it appears hunched.
Joint disorders . This disorder is divided into five, namely dislocation, sprains or sprains, ankylosis, exudative arthritis, and arthritis sika. The explanation of each is as follows.
Sika arthritis is a disorder in which the joints ache due to reduced joint oil. Exudative arthritis is a disorder in which the joints hurt when moved due to inflammation of the joints.
Dislocation is a disorder in which joint displacement results from tearing or ligament attraction. Sprains or sprains are disorders in which ligaments are attracted by sudden movements, keleseo accompanied by joint pain and inflammation.
Ankylosis is a disorder in which the joints cannot be moved because it is as if the joints become fused.
Physiological disorders . This disorder can be divided into three, namely rickets, microcephalus, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a bone disorder with symptoms of hard brittle bones caused by decreased male or female genital hormones.
Rickets is a bone disease due to lack of vitamin D so the bones become less hard. Then, microcephalus is a disturbance in the growth of skull bones due to lack of lime.
After understanding about disorders of the bone, then explained about human muscle abnormalities.
Various kinds of human muscle abnormalities . This disorder is divided into nine types namely atrophy, hypertopy, muscle spasms, neck stiffness, tetanus, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, abdominal hernias, and hamstring injuries.
Hamstring injury is a muscle tear or inflammation of the hamstring muscles in the thigh due to hard and sudden movements. Abdominal hernias are tearing of the abdominal wall muscle which causes the intestine to sag into the lower abdominal cavity.
Muscular dystrophy is a chronic muscular disease since childhood, it is thought to be hereditary. Atrophy is a muscle disorder that shrinks and loses the ability to contract so that the reduction in size reaches 25%. This can occur due to poliomyelitis.
Hypertopy is the muscle to become bigger and stronger because it is often over-trained. Muscle spasm is a muscle no longer able to contract because it works continuously. Tetanus is a continuous muscle spasm caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani.
Stiff neck or stiff a stiff and sore neck situation if driven caused by the trapezoid muscle becomes inflamed neck.
Myasthenia gravis is a muscle that is gradually weakening and causes paralysis and even death, which causes immunity or decreased thyroid gland activity.
Thus the presentation of abnormalities in the bones and muscles. The pemabahasan will further describe technology related to the motion system. As it is known that the development of the age is able to give birth to a tool that serves to overcome the problem of interference with the motion system.
Technologies Associated with Motion System Disorders
This technology deals with electronic prosthetic arms and legs, artificial joints, antroscopes, and doping. Each of these can be explained below.
Doping . Doping is a use of artificial chemicals to improve body performance, especially in the performance of muscles and bones. It is undeniable that doping can improve athlete performance.
However, providing side effects that are harmful to health. As a result, doping is prohibited in world sports. There are various types of doping, but there is only one type of doping that is directly related to muscle and bone, namely doping anabolic steroids and beta 2-aganik.
The compound is similar to the hormone testosterone, which plays a role in increasing muscle and bone strength. Side effects caused by causing baldness and infertility in men.
Electronic prosthetic limbs. This is to help people whose limbs are amputated. The making of prosthetic limbs is made in such a way that it is similar to the original, if wrapped in gloves.
The similarity consists of shapes, sizes, sections, and some activities that can be done. Even now prosthetic hands and feet are equipped with electronic circuits and long-lasting small batteries.
Both fingers and thumbs can be driven by electrically powered machines. Electric-powered prosthetic hand is called myoelectric, has a kind of muscle that is driven by electricity.
The muscles of the false arm are stretched by the servo to produce electrical signals. Then, the sensor tracks the signal and zoom in.
Artificial joints . Individuals who have joint problems can use an artificial joint. This was discovered in 1981-1982 by John Charnley, who made an internal joint in the form of a stainless steel ball mounted on the top of the femur and a Teflon bowl to replace the hip bones which now have been produced as much as 1000 per day.
Antroscope . An microscope is a type of endoscope that is used to look into the joints. For example, such as a knee injury due to exercise. The device is then inserted into a small incision of the skin through a natural opening between the ligament and tendon muscles.
This causes the joint structure can be illuminated by the beam of light so that it can be visualized on the monitor screen. After being diagnosed successfully, then the doctor performs surgery the same route.
Such is the explanation of the motion system in the human body , from bones to muscles. At the same time, exposure was given to abnormalities in bones and muscles. Hopefully this article helps you understand the human motion system. Have a good study.