Definition, Function and Types of Enzymes

Friends of the science portal this time we will study Natural Sciences, especially in biology. The material discussed is the Definition, Function and Types of Enzymes. What do you know about enzymes? Enzyme is a biocatalyst.

Where, this enzyme can accelerate the reactions that exist in the cells of living things. Enzymes are composed of protein and non-protein compounds. The components of this enzyme consist of two parts, namely protein or known as apoenzim and non-protein parts or prosthetic groups.

Apoenzim is a part of an active enzyme composed of proteins. In addition, apoenzim are easily changed or labile. This change is influenced by environmental factors, such as pH and temperature.

Prosthetic group is an inactive group. This group is in the form of metal elements, including iron, manganese, magnesium or sodium, called cofactors. Prosthetic groups can also be non-protein organic materials, including vitamin B, called coenzymes.

The way the enzyme works can be explained as follows. In a simple way the workings of enzymes can be described through key hypotheses and locks. The key hypothesis. The padlock hypothesis or lock hypothesis.

Substrate enzyme complex formed. This is because on the surface of the enzyme there is a place called the active site. The active side of an enzyme has a certain active configuration and only certain substrates can be joined.

These conditions cause the enzymes to work specifically. Enzyme reactions can be simply written as follows.

E (Enzyme) + S (Substrate) ↔ ES ↔ E (Enzyme) + P (Results)

(enzyme-substrate complex)

Then what about the properties possessed by enzymes? Enzymes have several properties. Enzyme properties can be described as follows:

Biocatalyst . This enzyme has a function as accelerating chemical reactions. Or as a cause for the start of a chemical reaction in the cell. The process of accelerating chemical reactions carried out by enzymes by reducing its activation energy.

The ability of enzymes to start reactions react and form again, at the end of the chemical reaction that can encourage the reduction of the use of activation energy at the beginning of the chemical reaction.

Protein . An enzyme is a protein so that the properties of an enzyme are the same as a protein. The equation is influenced by temperature and pH. Temperature can affect the apoenzim or active protein. Where at low temperatures, enzyme proteins will experience coagulation.

Meanwhile, at high temperatures will cause denaturation. Hydrogen potential or pH affects the enzymes in the protein portion, especially in the carboxylic group and the amine group in the amino acids making up the protein.

Specific work . In a treatment reaction or reacting a certain substance a certain enzyme is needed. Or called one enzyme one substrate. This means that one type of enzyme is only specific to one substrate. For example, the enzyme maltase can only break down maltose into glucose.

Does not play back and forth . Enzymes can work to break down a substrate into certain substrates. And conversely, can arrange an original substrate from the decomposition.

For example, the enzyme group protease can break down proteins into amino acids. However, it cannot combine amino acids into proteins.

Work fast . Enzymes can work quickly. The working properties possessed by this enzyme are caused by enzymes only functioning to decrease the activation energy at the beginning of a chemical reaction in a cell.

It is alternating or the enzyme reacts and will form again at the end of the reaction . Enzymes accelerate a reaction by reducing the activation energy. The method done by way of reacting and will quickly form again at the end of the reaction.

At the time of reacting the chemical structure of the enzyme and chemical structure of the enzyme will be formed again as before at the end of the reaction.

The work of enzymes is influenced by the environment . The environment intended here is temperature, pH, and inhibitors or inhibitors.

  1. Enzymes can work optimally in certain pH. The degree of acidity or pH that does not match the working nature of the enzyme can cause ionization of the carboxyl group. And amen from the parts of enzymes which are composed of proteins or apoenzim and cause denaturation. Thus this, a change in the structure of the enzyme and can not work properly.
  2. At high temperatures the enzyme breaks down. Then, at low temperatures or zero degrees Celsius or below, the enzyme cannot work even if it is not damaged. At low temperatures the active side or protein consisting of apoenzim will experience coagulation. At high temperatures this section will experience what is called denaturation.
  3. Inhibitors or inhibitors. The inhibitor has a structure similar to the substrate. In addition, it can join in enzymatic reactions. As a result, enzyme activity is disrupted. Inhibitors that inhibit the action of enzymes on the active side are called competitive inhibitors. Meanwhile, which inhibits the work of enzymes on the passive side is called a non-competitive inhibitor.

After learning about the properties of enzymes. Next how to name the enzyme.

The procedure for naming enzymes is generally adjusted to the name of the substrate being broken down or the type of chemical reaction that is accelerated or catalyzed by the enzyme. Then, given the suffix -ase.

The following are examples of the types of enzymes and the role of enzymes, as follows.

Protase enzyme

  1. Renin: decomposes casein from milk.
  2. Gelatinase: plays a role in breaking down gelatin.
  3. Enterokinase: role to break down peptin into amino acids.
  4. Pepsin: role to break down protein into peptone.
  5. Trypsin: plays a role in breaking peptons into amino acids.
  6. Peptidase: plays a role in breaking down peptides into amino acids.

Esterase enzyme

  1. Phosphatase: has the role of breaking down an ester until the phosphorus is released.
  2. Lipase: plays a role in breaking down fat into glycerol and fatty acids.

Carbohydrase Enzyme

  1. Pectinase: plays a role in breaking down pectin into pectin acid.
  2. Cellulose: role to break down cellulose or polysaccharides into cellobiose or disaccharides.
  3. Maltase: plays a role in breaking down maltose into glucose.
  4. Lactose: plays a role in converting lactose to glucose and galactose.
  5. Sucrose: plays a role in converting sucrose into glucose and fructose.
  6. Amylase: plays a role in breaking down starch or polysaccharides into maltose or disaccharides.

There are many other types of enzymes. Other examples include the enzyme catalase. This catalase enzyme also plays a role in metabolism. This enzyme can be found in all body tissues. In particular, it is highly concentrated in the heart.

In addition, in the kidneys, heart, and blood (See also: Circulatory System in Humans ). During breathing, toxic hydrogen peroxide is formed. In addition, it can cause cell damage. However, the catalase enzyme can be broken down into water and oxygen.

Thus the explanation about enzymes. Now you know how the properties of enzymes are. There are seven properties of enzymes that you can now know about. In addition, this discussion also provides an explanation of the naming of enzymes. Hopefully this article helps you in understanding about enzymes. Have a good study.

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