Guava ( Psidium spp ). Genus of about a hundred species of trees and tropical small tree in the family Myrtaceae , native to the Caribbean , Central America , America North and northern South America .
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- 1 Scientific name
- 2 Synonymy
- 3 Common names
- 4 Type species
- 5 The Guayabo
- 6 Features
- 1 Stem
- 2 Sheets
- 3 Root
- 4 Flowers
- 5 Fruit
- 7 varieties
- 8 Crop
- 9 Chemical composition
- 10 Some uses of guava
- 11 References
- 12 Sources
- Psidium L. 
- Acca O. Berg
- Calyptropsidium O. Berg
- Guaiava Adans.
- Mitropsidium Burret
- Psidiopsis O. Berg 
- Cuiavus Trew (1754).
- Guajava Mill. (1754).
- Guava Noronha (1790), nom. inval.
- Corynemyrtus (Kiaersk.) Mattos (1963). 
Guava, Guayabo, Maroon Guava, Peruvian Guava, Parakeet Guava.
- Psidium guajava
The guava is a relatively small tree, up to 8 m high, which contains in itself an unequaled treasure, original from tropical America and is cultivated and naturalized in Tropics of the Old World. It has spread in Cuba in such a way that they form extensive guayabales; for example, when traveling on the Viñales highway in the Pinar del Río province , you can see the beautiful guayabos covering the landscape, contrasting with the mogotes that can be seen in the distance.
In its angular and velvety branches the rigid and aromatic leaves are paired with a perfect symmetry, whole, 4-8 cm long, with the prominent nerves on the underside, it seems that a leaf leaned out the mirror to reflect its image. Numerous glands are discovered on the surface of the plates, like tiny diamonds embedded in a sea green.
The fragile body of the guava tree is dressed in a very smooth bark, whose plumb gray color contrasts beautifully with the leaves. These and the branches are used to smoke pork as they give it a delicious aroma.
Its flowers are white, showy, in groups of 1-3 with numerous stamens, arranged on a wide disk.
The fruit is fleshy of variable shape and size depending on the species or variety. They are edible, have a nutritional value of between 38-66 calories / 100 grams and are richer in vitamin C than citrus, second only to cashew pulp . They are also used as antiescorbútico due to its richness in vitamin C .
The wood is hard, heavy and strong, useful for building ends of agricultural tools and all kinds, it carves well and is good fuel .
The leaves are characterized by the presence of an essential oil rich in caryophyllene , nerolidiol , beta bisabolene , aromandrene , p-selinne .
Also contain beta – sitosterol , titerpenoides , leucocyanidins and about 10% of tannins . They have recognized medicinal properties, act on the digestive system and are widely used as antidiarrheal . For this purpose, healthy leaves should be collected in the early hours of the morning and preferably used fresh as a cook. The decoction or infusion of the leaves is also used for its antibiotic properties.
It reaches from 2 to 9 meters in height and up to 30 cm in diameter, with a tendency to branch out profusely, with a hard and woody consistency.
They are somewhat leathery, oblong, elliptical and arranged in alternate pairs. The size ranges from 7.5 to 15 cm, the rib is easily distinguished and is more pronounced on the underside. The petiole is short.
Of good development and ramification, with penetration power, which favors its adaptation in almost all types of soils. The roots have an allelopathic effect.
Hermaphrodites, white, large, appear solitary or forming groups of two or three at the end of each flower bud or toast. Flowering can be permanent if the technical conditions of the crop are good.
Berry of varied shape and size, smooth and waxy skin. Pulp color can be white, yellow , pink or red , with varied flavor and texture, with characteristic odor. The flavor varies from sweet, acidic and very acidic, in a few cases tasteless. The seed number fluctuates and can reach up to 500.
There are guava varieties, but the best known are the parrot and Peru . The exquisite pale red pulp and the excellent aroma that characterizes it make the parrot guava an ideal fruit for making preserves. The guava from Peru has a large fruit, similar to the pear, although much softer and more delicate; its fine white pulp has few seeds, making it highly prized.
For its cultivation, fertile, well-drained soils should preferably be used, with a tillable layer of not less than 30 cm and a pH between 5.5-6.5. It tolerates a certain degree of salinity and resists prolonged flooding. It is propagated vegetatively by grafts, layers or cuttings of branches and roots.
It must be planted between May – September at distances of 6×3; 5×5 or 8×4 m and prune every year after the harvest of the fruits ( October – January ).
Raw fiber. 8.50
Acidity (tannic acid). 1.00
Some uses of guava
Wood : Wood is yellow to reddish, fine-grained, compact, moderately strong, weighs 650-750 kg per cubic meter; it is durable indoors; It is used in carpentry and turning. It can be deformed during curing, it is much more demanded in Malaysia for handles and ropes; in India , it is highly valued for carving. Guatemalans use guava wood to make tops. It is a good firewood and also a source for wood charcoal .
Leaves and bark : The bark and leaves are rich in tannins (10% in the leaves, 11-30% in the bark). The bark is used in Central America for the tanning of skins. In Malaysia leaves with other materials are used to make a black dye for silk. In Southeast Asia , the leaves are used to blacken cotton, and in Indonesia , they are used for coloring mats. In Cuba bunches of green leaves are thrown on the coals to produce a smoke with a characteristic smell during the homemade smoking of hams and sausages.
Wood flowers : In Mexico , the tree can be parasitized by the mistletoe, Psittacanthus calyculatus Don, which produces malformations such as rosettes called “wood flowers”, which are sold as ornamental curios.
Medical uses: Guava for health are really important, in particular for their richness in quercetin, an antioxidant that has the ability to block the enzymes responsible for the construction of sorbitol, the sugar that forms the groups and white clouds of cataracts, a disease ocular degenerative characteristic of the elderly. Due to its vitamin A content, it is known as a booster for general eye health. It can help decrease the appearance of cataracts, macular degeneration, and even an improvement in eyesight once it has started to degrade. Due to its high vitamin C content, guava is very useful in relieving coughs and colds, disinfecting the airways, throat and lungs, and inhibiting microbial activity with its astringent properties. It helps reduce cholesterol in the blood and prevents it from thickening, thereby maintaining the fluidity of the blood and reducing blood pressure. In addition, it contains vitamins B3 and B6. Vitamin B3 (also known as niacin) can increase blood flow and stimulate cognitive function. Vitamin B6 is a great nutrient for nerve and brain function. Therefore, eating guava can help increase brain function and improve concentration. Another benefit of this fruit is that it is very rich in alkaline astringents that have disinfecting action and anti-bacterial properties, which helps reduce the symptoms of diarrhea and cure dysentery (inflammatory bowel disorder, especially in the colon). , by inhibiting microbial growth and promoting the removal of excess mucus from the intestines. On the other hand, guava nutrients such as vitamin C, carotenoids and potassium strengthen and tone the digestive system and at the same time disinfect it. Guava is also beneficial in the treatment ofgastroenteritis . The benefits of guava come to have more importance in children as well as in emotional or weakened people; For those who suffer from very frequent inflamed gums, it is recommended to gargle with an infusion prepared from this fruit. It is one of the fruits with the highest antioxidant activity. It has antibiotic properties against bacteria that cause bad breath, and is ideal in sports, arthritis, stress and pregnancy.
The main applications for guava health are:
- Excellent to reinforce the body’s defenses since it stimulates the production of white blood cells.
- Helps fight and prevent infectious diseases.
- Very useful to treat respiratory conditions such as cough, bronchitis, asthma, colds, influenza, flu, etc.
- Helps maintain proper blood pressure balance
- It improves circulation.
- It helps fight cholesterol.
- Good to include in diabetic diets.
- Protects against infectious eye diseases.
- Supports the activity of repair enzymes.
- It has a slight anti-coagulant action.
- Helps purify the body of accumulated harmful toxins or fats.
- It favors the health of the skin.
- Helps fight contagion.
- Useful in the diets of the elderly, it helps to invigorate the body and keep it in good general health.
- Finally, guava can be consumed in many ways and with it you can make various preparations such as juices, dressings, cocktails, jams, sweets, desserts and sauces.