Cherry. Small, semi-circular fruit with an intense red color and sweet flavor, also known as cherries or called griottes in France, which have anti-inflammatory, detoxifying and remineralizing properties.
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- 1 Origin
- 2 Features
- 3 varieties
- 4 Crop
- 5 Current production
- 6 Nutritional properties
- 1 Nutritional composition
- 7 Health properties
- 8 Use in the kitchen
- 9 How to choose and keep them
- 10 Tips
- 11 Sources
The origin of these fruits is located in the Black Sea and in the Caspian Sea , later spreading to Europe and Asia , through birds and human migration. Currently, the cherry tree is cultivated in numerous regions and countries of the world with a temperate climate, the countries with the highest production being Russia , the United States , Germany , Italy , France and Spain . Cherries and sour cherries are summer fruits, although we can enjoy their pleasant flavor from the end of April (the earliest) to mid-August.
The cherry is the fleshy fruit of the cherry or the common cherry. Its skin is reddish and blackish, it has a rounded shape and it has a depression at the apex. It is small 2 centimeters in diameter, contains a small bone inside and has a somewhat shorter stem than that of cherries. The sour cherries do not continue to ripen after harvesting, they are a non-climacteric food, so it is essential that they reach the optimum point of ripening on the tree. The roughness of its skin means that it is used in cooking in candies.
- Shape: they are drupes, round, globose or with a heart figure. They have a globose and almost smooth bone.
- Size and weight: their size varies according to the commercial category between 13 and 20 millimeters and they have an approximate diameter of 2 centimeters and a weight of 6-9 grams.
- Color: presents colors that vary between dark purple or black, paler cream tones with a slight blush of pink and red, depending on the variety
- Flavor: sweet and juicy or sour, especially appreciable in sour cherries. Processed cherries can be harvested mechanically, while those intended for fresh consumption are harvested by hand. They are collected as ripe as possible because the sugar does not increase after harvesting, they are non-climacteric fruits
Some of the most significant varieties of sour cherry are found in the northern parts of Europe and are named Richmond , Montmorency and Morello . The best known varieties are divided into sweet cherries Prunus avium or sour Prunus cerasus . Within the Prunus species is also the Prunus avium or cherry, very similar to the cherry but with a sweet flavor and shades of ruby red. Among these highlights growing varieties Napoleon (especially produced in Spain as table fruit), Tartar black , Ambrunesa ,Burlat , Starking , Summit , Vittoria , Lapins , Sandy and Picota . It was introduced to Europe from the Caucasus , from where the birds transported their seed. The sour varieties are dark fruits with short stems, called griottes in France or sour cherries in Spanish. Sometimes they are so sour that they cannot be eaten. They are small and round and offer a color that ranges from dark red to black. Today, hybrid cherries are also cultivated, with characteristics similar to common cherry, black or dark red in color but with the sour taste of the cherry.
Cherry or cherry plant
The cherry is a tree with good performance in any region that enjoys a temperate climate and a maximum altitude of 500 meters above sea level. It is a species that tolerates cold very well, although when the thermal values drop below 0ºC it suffers damage to its flowers (it blooms in spring).
Three months after flowering, the fruits appear, already with warmer temperatures, although a sudden change in these dates can spoil the harvest. They need precipitation values of around 1,200 mm / year, but never in excessive proportions during the ripening of the fruit, since it is possible that their skin cracks after the fruit swells. The ideal substrate for the cultivation of sour cherry is one that provides good drainage and aeration, heavy soils located on smooth mountain slopes or relatively cool dry land. The sour cherries are collected when most of their surface presents deep red tones, being collected together with their pedicel (pendulum that attaches it to the stem), thus avoiding their rapid rot.
The current production of sour cherries remains mainly focused on North America and the countries of northern Europe . In the Old Continent Poland , Hungary and Germany share almost 87% of the production (more than 270,000 tons). There are also plantations in the Iberian Peninsula, there are traditional productions in Extremadura , Andalusia and the Ebro valley . In the region of Murcia , in the first years of the 21st century, cherry and cherry productions were counted in the same group, reaching an annual average of 650 tons.
It is a fruit of great acceptance, very attractive for children, a quality for which it can be highlighted as a model for the education of the eating habits of the smallest, thus encouraging the consumption of this important group of foods as it has nutritional properties. to the body, the majority component of the icing is water, providing low levels of calories and a high percentage of fiber and hydrates of carbon , in particular fructose. The minerals present in the cherry are potassium , magnesium and calcium , as its contribution of vitamin Aand C, which stimulates the production of collagen to promote moisture and softness of the skin. In addition, due to its carotene content, it helps to obtain an optimal tan. It also eradicates the formation of cellulite and varicose veins, since it stimulates the circulation of blood vessels. Without neglecting its help in disinflammation, as its contribution of water helps to eliminate toxins. The cherry is also a food rich in fiber, which is why it gives great satiety, which makes it a fundamental part of the daily diet, especially when looking to reach an ideal weight.
- Calories 58.3
- Carbohydrates (g) 13.5
- Fiber (g) 1.5
- Potassium (mg) 260
- Magnesium (mg) 11
- Provitamin A (mcg) 3
- Vitamin C (mg) 8
- Calcium (mg) 16
Properties for health
Sour cherries have been used by alternative medicine as a remedy for gout, because they are believed to lower blood uric acid levels. This anti-inflammatory effect is due to the content of phenolic compounds that have a powerful antioxidant effect. The main phenolic compound present in sour cherries is anthocyanins. The darker the icing, the higher the anthocyanin content. Cherries have a high content of anthocyanins and ellagic acid, with antioxidant and antiseptic action; to fight infections. Antioxidants block the damaging effect of so-called “free radicals”. Due to its abundance of potassium, the consumption of sour cherries should be done in moderation in case of renal failure, in which the potassium supply is restricted. However, Due to its high content of water and potassium, it has a beneficial diuretic effect in case of hyperuricemia or gout and lithiasis or kidney stones (they facilitate the elimination of uric acid and its salts), high blood pressure or other diseases associated with fluid retention. Its consumption is also convenient when diuretics are used that eliminate this mineral, and in case of bulimia due to episodes of self-induced vomiting that cause great losses. Its fiber content gives laxative properties. Fiber prevents or improves constipation, contributes to reducing blood cholesterol levels and good glycemic control (blood sugar levels) in people who have diabetes. However, Later cherries have a higher sugar content, so people with diabetes and those who follow weight-loss regimens should take the serving ration into account. They provide little vitamin A and C and potassium. It also provides a type of phytochemical that would contribute to the proper functioning of the brain, maintain the defense system and neutralize free radicals.
Use in the kitchen
Sour cherries in syrup
Due to their acidic flavor, they are usually used mainly in the preparation of preserves – filled with a light syrup made with water and sugar – but they are also consumed fresh. Specifically, candied sour cherries are used both in confectionery and in the decoration of desserts and as an accompaniment to drinks such as must or vermouth. They can be consumed fresh, as dessert or in cakes, mousses and sorbets, or candied or as a filling for chocolates. In some countries such as France or England they are widely used in making condiments to accompany game, pork and poultry.
Those that are destined for cooking are prepared by removing their bones with a boning machine. If they are squeezed too much when they are boned, they can lose a lot of juice. In some countries such as France or England they are widely used in making condiments to accompany game, pork and poultry. Cherries flamed with a brandy sauce and poured over a vanilla ice cream form the well-known dessert called Cherries Jubilee. Candied sour cherries are used in the Region of Murcia as a component and decoration in the Christmas Eve salad, typical of the Guadalentín Valley, apple tart with pine nuts, and accompanying pineapple and peach in syrup, a typical dessert for Christmas dates . Jams or cherries compotes add their unique flavor to yogurts, cakes, mousses, sorbets, ice cream or pastries. In addition they are also fruits with which delicious liqueurs (German kirsch), spirits and other drinks such as juices or soft drinks are made.
How to choose and keep them
Fruits with a dark red or bright black color should be chosen on the market, depending on the variety. Meaty ones are always the best. They must be clean and have a firm, shiny, whole skin without breaks or blemishes. Its stems must be green and fresh. It should be ensured that the stem is well attached to the fruit and that there is no rot or mold at the point of union of both. It is also important that they do not have malformations (double fruits). In general, it is the larger cherries that offer the best flavor. In the case of sour cherries, the best are round and heavy, light red or yellowish pink. Once they have reached their point of season, they should be stored in the refrigerator without washing or covering; in this way they can be kept for up to two weeks. They admit the freezing, fresh or smeared with a light syrup,