Granadilla or Sweet Granadilla ( Pasiflora ligularis ). It is a vigorous, glabrous vine plant , native to South America , specifically from the foothills of the Andean mountain range from northern Chile to Venezuela . It is mainly cultivated in Colombia , Mexico , Bolivia , Peru , the United States and India . It is also known as passion fruit , common granadilla , passionfruit China . Its fruitit is the most common and sweetest of the passionflower .
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- 1 Origin of the name
- 2 Overview
- 3 Nutritional composition
- 4 Climate and soil
- 5 Propagation methods
- 1 Sexual
- 2 Asexual
- 6 Pruning, fertilization and irrigation
- 7 Pests and diseases
- 8 uses
- 9 Sources
The colorful floras of this species caught the attention of the first Spanish missionaries who saw in them the representation of the elements of the passion of Jesus , from which the technical name of the species that make up the Passifloraceae family derives .
In the process of transculturation , the Spanish due to their scarce knowledge about the natural sciences resorted, to denominate the species of the lands they conquered, to the use of diminutives, such is the case of the granadilla, in relation to the fruit of the Pomegranate ( Punica granatum l ) species that has nothing to do in botanical classification with the species Pasiflora ligularis juss .
The plant Grenadilla is a climbing vine of habit and somewhat hairy enredador can be found in trees low, dead trees and often come to fully entangled in tall trees. Its roots are fibrous and branched and go from 20 to 40 cm deep. The stem is cylindrical, coloring yellow – green in its initial state and brown clear adult or lignified state, the stem is the structure of the plant, has tendrils which entangles and climbs.
Each branch has knots and internodes and in each knot an entire heart-shaped leaf of short petiole is observed and next to it are two stipules and inside these are the flower buds. As they develop flower buds formation phase begins the flower , which is perfect and required for fertilization receive pollen from another flower of another plant.
The fruit is a hard covered berry with an almost spherical shape of 6 – 8 cm in diameter, greenish or slightly yellowish when ripening approaches. When the fruit is fully ripe it is an intense yellow and in most cases it has whitish spots. It has on the inside an average of 200–250 seeds wrapped in a translucent, mucilaginous and acidulated grayish aril that constitutes the edible part, the seeds are joined to a white placenta that corresponds to the mesocarp of the fruit, the seeds are black , flat in shield shape and have small circular sunken areas and are relatively small and hard.
Granadilla is an excellent source of potassium , calcium , phosphorous , iron and fiber . It helps provide essential vitamins for the body such as vitamin B1, B2, C and provitamin A. It also contains protein and carbohydrates .
The consumption of granadilla is recommended for the stabilization of the nerves, since it works as a sedative or natural tranquilizer. The juice is used as a digestive stimulant. It also controls acidity, and helps heal ulcers .
This fruit has a high fiber content if consumed with the seeds . The fruit is known as “the fruit children”, since it activates the thymus of children to help them grow.
Climate and soil
It has a subtropical climate . The species thrives well in a climate of moderate cold , with temperatures between 20 and 24 o C and a relative humidity of 75% (intolerance to strong heat ).
It needs deep and fertile soils with good aeration , a frank or sandy loam texture and soils with a high content of organic matter .
The granadilla can spread in 2 ways: sexually (by seeds) and asexually (vegetatively).
The process begins with the selection and extraction of the fruit . The selected material must be extracted from healthy plants with high productivity, ripe, whole, healthy fruits with an individual weight of 100 g or more. The seeds must be from the same locality where it is going to be sown. The process begins with cutting the fruits in half, then the contents are emptied into a container with clean water where they are soaked for 48 hours, then the seeds are passed through a strainer until the aryl is completely detached ( mass).
Then they proceed to dry them in the shade for about 24 to 48 hours to obtain the seeds, later these go through a storage process that consists of sowing the seeds in soil or various mixtures with organic matter to then transplant them . The seeds germinate after 15 to 20 days . During the storage process, the plant must be watered with boiled water for disinfection.
This method is by grafts . This type of propagation is used to overcome problems of diseases caused by fungi that live in the soil or climatic limitations.
There is also the propagation by stake that lasts approximately 2 months before being transplanted to the ground. This method provides granadilla plants earlier, but with fewer years of productive life.
Pruning, fertilization and irrigation
There are 3 types of pruning:
- Formation: itconsists of giving form to the plant from the seedling ; Asylar shoots are removed leaving only the main stem with its leaves .
- Production:consists of removing diseased or weak unproductive stems that have lost flowering.
- Relay:This pruning is performed when high density is observed . With this, better aeration and entry of sun are made possible to prevent the attack of diseases. Tangled branches should be thinned.
In this stage, organic matter is incorporated, completing it with applications of nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium . Previously, a soil analysis must be done to know the amount of application.
The watering must be permanent and controlled. If unexpected droughts or rains occur in the place to be planted , an irrigation control must be maintained so that there is a balance between the requirements of the plant and what is provided.
Plagues and diseases
The granadilla is susceptible to attack by pests , among which two stand out:
- Chewing larvae: they attack the leaves of the granadilla and can produce complete defoliation and even kill the plants in the nursery .
- Red Spider: Attacks in the dry months .
Among the diseases that can affect the plant are:
- Oidium: fungus that sometimes appears in the tender foliage of the plant, usually appears due to poor management of the garden or sudden changes in humidity and ambient
- Votritys: it leads to the rotting of flowers and fruits when they are in development, due to the high humidity due to chaining or density of the branches.
The granadilla flower is used in perfumery and the shell has great potential in the preparation of concentrates for animals . In addition, it has digestive and diuretic properties, it is recommended for patients affected by gastrointestinal ulcers . It contains healing substances and is an activator of the thymus, it has sedative antispasmodic action and it is inducer of sleep , it counteracts reflux in both adults and babies and it has therapeutic action in patients with hiatal hernia . Because it is rich in vitamin C, it helps to strengthen the immune system .
The granadilla has a sweet flavor, which is derived from the sugar content and has a low yield in juice, which is why it has been used especially for fresh consumption, an important factor for its acceptance being the fact that it is a fruit that has a pleasant aroma . Granadilla is used as a raw material in the production of jams , jellies , concentrates, and juice.