Earth Heat Energy
One of the very important renewable energy sources is Geothermal Energy , of which we will address its main concepts for greater knowledge about it and its role as essential for its multiple applications as a source of natural energy from the heat of the land .
What is geothermal energy?
It is one of the sources of renewable energy that is obtained from the use of heat from the earth or from terrestrial materials such as water and rocks.
Geothermal Energy Characteristics
- Energy that takes advantage of the natural pressure and temperature of the earth’s subsoil waters.
- Source of natural, renewable and clean energy.
- Energy with multiple uses.
- Energy that is harnessed through geothermal plants.
- Alternative to hydrocarbons.
- Ecological and sustainable.
Uses of Geothermal Energy
The main uses of geothermal energy are for the generation of electricity, direct use of heat, heating and DHW and absorption cooling.
Also, the direct uses of geothermal waters are for sanitary use, spas, crops in greenhouses, reducing the growth time of fish, industrial uses and for the implementation of heating.
Types of Geothermal Energy
- High temperature, electricity is generated through a turbine.
- Average temperature, exploited by small power plants.
- Low temperature, used for heating, greenhouse or agriculture.
- Very low temperature, geothermal heat pumps are used to heat and cool.
There are also 3 types of geothermal deposits:
- Hot water
How Geothermal Energy Works
This process works with the use of geothermal deposits , which can be dry, overheated rocks, or hot water.
The heat of the volcanoes is transmitted by conduction and convection to rocky bodies or groundwater that store it . The rocks and water are heated at high temperatures storing the transmitted heat.
Subsequently, water vapor is extracted from groundwater to move turbines and generate electricity . Finally, the water used is returned to the reservoir to be reheated and used again .
Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy
- Very efficient and clean.
- Economic and energy saving.
- Lower CO2 emission unlike combustion energy
- Minimum waste.
- Energy dependence abroad.
- It remains stable
- It does not depend on the weather conditions.
- use in a particular way.
- High performance and low consumption.
- Low return time.
- Alternative to the contamination of fossil fuels.
- Economic production
- Responsible with the environment.
- Initial Investment
- New and little exploited energy.
- Emission of Hydrogen Sulfide
- Thermal pollution
- Its transport as primary energy.
- Availability in certain places.
- Microsisms in dry deposits.
- Less environmental impact.
Examples of Geothermal Energy
Among the main examples as a source of geothermal energy are hot springs, magma, volcanoes, geysers, desalination plants, geothermal heat pumps.
Also, Timanfaya oven-roaster, Hellisheiði geothermal power plant, geothermally heated greenhouses, cerro prieto geothermal power plant, agricultural drying, Yellowstone Park geysers, among many more.
In conclusion, it is the type of renewable energy that is obtained from the caloric energy of the earth, water and rocks .
Its multiple applications since its direct use to obtain heat, heating, cooling and the generation of electricity, make it a fundamental energy to any other and that must be encouraged for sustainable development .