Fountain pen . The piston fountain pens have a threaded bone that, attached to the loading button, is housed in the internal thread of the piston rod. .
When turning the load knob, the turn is then transformed into a forward or backward movement of the stem and therefore of the piston located at the front end; said plunger closes the ink device so that neither the air can pass to the bottom of the pen
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- 1 Origin
- 2 Thread of the guide bushing
- 3 fountain pens with refill
- 4 Thermal regulator
- 5 Ballpoint pen
- 6 Ink paste
- 7 Switch socket
- 8 Sources
Since the industrial revolution allowed the mass production of metal nibs, we have been looking for ways to incorporate our own ink tank into the pen so as not to constantly depend on the ink fountain. Until the end of the 19th century, all attempts resulted in instruments with an irregular flow of ink, which stopped writing as soon as they released too much ink with the consequent smears.
In 1883 Lewis Edson Waterman, an insurance agent, patented a feed system that allowed a controlled flow of ink on paper. The mechanism balanced the pressure inside and outside the tank by means of three fissures in the feeder channel, through which the air rose to the interior while the ink left the nib.
This is how the first modern fountain pen, the Waterman’s Ideal Fountain Pen, was born. Following improvements in ink flow, in 1894 George S. Parker patented a new feeder, curved at its end and touching the inside of the tank, allowing the excess ink remaining on the nib after writing was drawn by capillary action into the pen, thus preventing the typical finger spots when unscrewing the cap.
The system was called Lucky Curve Today, immersed fully in a new period of splendor of the pen, manufacturers quickly renew their catalogs and multiply the number of their limited editions, to such an extent that voices are beginning to be heard among collectors expressing their discomfort at the continued appearance of unique models. However, such an offer allows both the regular and the occasional customer to have a wide range of sizes, prices, colors, shapes and materials where they can choose the pen that best suits their hand and way of writing.
Guide sleeve thread
It has a recess that allows air to penetrate the chamber that is behind the piston in order to prevent a vacuum from forming there when it moves forward, that is, when the button is loaded to the right, then the piston retracts thus creating a vacuum in the ink tank and the supply lines that go to the nib’s ventilation hole; It is this vacuum that the vat sucks when loading the fountain pen. So, in order to be able to load the pen, the pen needs to be submerged in the ink until it is below the level of the hole.
When writing with the pen, the ink in the tank is led through the capillary channels of the feeder to the underside of the pen, and sliding down the central cut, it then reaches the tip of the pen. The pressure exerted on the nib widens the cut and opens its two elastic wings, thus making it take more ink and transfer it to the paper. As the ink is consumed, air can enter the tank; To do this, the feeder has a ducted spacing that allows air to enter in the form of tiny bubbles
Fountain pens with refill
They work with a flexible plastic replacement that is closed with a glass ball, when mounting the replacement in the pen, the ball is pushed by an appendage to the inside of the container and then remains there without influencing at all, the flow of ink . The refill contains one cubic centimeter of ink. For its part, the feeder is responsible for driving the ink of the refill to the nib by squeezing it through a polished tongue that located at its rear end, allows at the same time that air can penetrate the refill. A closing bell covers the feeder mouth laterally to prevent ink from entering the pen handle.
It consists of two caps inserted into one another housed in the fountain pen feeder. The separation between the two is calculated in such a way that the capillary force retains the ink adhered to the caps. Capillary forces always act on the external surface of solid and liquid bodies.
In the case of a liquid, the molecules found on said surface are subjected, on the one hand, to the forces of attraction of the internal molecules of the liquid itself, and, on the other hand, to those of the wall of the container in the thermal regulator, overcome the latter. , and the ink remains adhered to the walls of the capillary ducts for the same reason that, for example, it can also resist the action of gravity when it is housed in a tube with a sufficiently small diameter.
The purpose of the thermal regulator is to retain the ink that tends to come out of the pen when, due to a temperature increase with a decrease in atmospheric pressure, the air in the refill expands. Due to their great absorption power and to take full advantage of the action of capillary forces, the compensation chambers (intermediate space between the regulator bushings) offer very high security and prevent smears or ink spots from forming when they vary greatly. temperature or altitude change.
However, the decline of the fountain pen during the 1950s and 1960s was not caused by a lack of innovative ideas, but by the appearance on the scene of a new actor: the pen. Patented in 1938 by Hungarian Laszlo J. Biro, the pen became, slowly at first but firmly, the owner of the writing instruments market. Its fame was endorsed by its use in the Allied combat aircraft of the Second World War, in conditions of pressure for which the fountain pens were not prepared. The revolution caused by the pen forced many companies to close,
- The ballpoint pen is a writing tool with a rotating ball to transport the ink paste used in this case to the paper; the ink descends, mainly by the action of gravity. In the resting state, the ball adapts exactly to its seat located at its lower end of the tank and thus closes the ink path to prevent it from drying out.
It generally consists of fatty dyes agglutinated with olein (percentage of dyes: 10% -20%) together with the simple pens of non-retractable spare parts, there are also pens with a push button equipped with mechanisms that allow them to be removed and hidden at will. The existing mechanisms are very varied in this way, for example the ball-point pens with the push-pull mechanism hold the front and their guide tabs will slide through the fixed slot located on the handle.
When the button is now released, the spare part reverses the action of the long spring and introducing the guide of the stem into the teeth of the switch bushing, it is finally retained in writing position. To hide it, the actuation button must be pressed again so that the shank guides penetrate again into the fixed grooves of the pen handle; the commutating bushing is then mounted on the inclined tips of the latter by the action of a small spring, at the same time guiding a tooth.
As the stem is now retracted, the bushing rises and returns to give a new twist so that the small ones of that one now penetrate into the deeper grooves and the mine can retract.
It therefore constitutes the government piece of the ballpoint pen; In addition, the ball mechanism is practically non-wearing, since it has fewer parts and lacks teeth or projections. Ballpoint pens of this type consist of an elongated button, a lower screw cap, a two-piece handle and a small steel ball housed within it. The ball is retained in a throat of the handle that maintains it at an invariable height.
By pressing the actuation button the ball will then guide clockwise into an armored slot carved into the button head; therefore, the position of the ball in the slot in turn determines the top point of the heart. Pressing the button moves the ball to the top point of the heart. And it is retained there by the pressure of the upper spring the spare is now in writing position. By pressing the button again, the ball descends to the lower point of the heart and the mine retracts.