Plumbing , (plumbing or plumbing) is the activity related to the installation of drinking water supply networks and wastewater evacuation, as well as heating installations in buildings and other constructions. Those who practice it are called plumbers, plumbers, plumbers or gasfitters. Plumbing is a profession in the branch of metallurgy or metal, in charge of drinking water supply and wastewater evacuation installations, as well as heating installations in buildings and other constructions.


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  • 1 Background
  • 2 Plumbing accessories
    • 1 Elbow
    • 2 Street elbow
    • 3 You
    • 4 Cross
    • 5 Adapter
    • 6 Cap
    • 7 Union
    • 8 Nozzle
    • 9 Accessories and applications
  • 3 Plumber (Plumber)
    • 1 Functions
  • 4 Water system
    • 1 Drinking water supply
    • 2 Water source
    • 3 Hot Water
  • 5 Source
  • 6 External link


Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Roman, Persian, Indian , and Chinese civilizations which developed public toilets and needed to provide clean water and waste drainage. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs plumbing systems, plumbing fixtures, and equipment such as water heaters. The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of any developed economy due to the need for clean water, and the proper collection and transportation of waste. Plumbing is a system of pipes and fittings installed in a building for the distribution of drinking water and the removal of floating garbage.

Plumbing is generally distinguished from water and sewage systems, in that a plumbing system serves a building, while water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings or a city. Improvement in plumbing systems was very slow, with virtually no progress from the Roman lead pipe and aqueduct system until the 19th century . Eventually the development of separating groundwater from systems removed from wastewater opens up ditches and cesspools.

Much of the plumbing work in populated areas (cities, etc …) is regulated by government or quasi-government agencies due to the direct impact on public health, safety, and well-being. Pipe installation and repair work in residences and other buildings should generally be done in accordance with plumbing and construction codes to protect the inhabitants of the buildings and to ensure the safety of the quality of construction to prospective buyers.

If permits are required for the job, contractors typically secure the authorities on behalf of the home or construction owners. The materials of irrigation systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the water source, using pipes or channels generally made of clay, lead or stone. Today’s water supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and the pipes are now made of copper, brass, plastic, steel, or other non-toxic material. The current drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel , cast iron, and lead . Lead is not used in the installation of modern water supply pipes due to its toxicity.

The straight sections of the plumbing systems are pipe. A pipeline is typically formed via casting or welding, where a pipe is made through the extrusion. The pipe has thicker walls and can usually be threaded or welded, where the thin pipe is walled and requires special assembly techniques such as welding, compression testing, crimping, or for plastics, solvent welding.

Plumbing fixtures

The fittings are used in plumbing and plumbing systems to connect straight sections of the pipe, to adapt to various sizes or shapes, and to regulate the flow of liquid, for example. Fittings, especially of the uncommon types, can be expensive, and require time, materials, and tools to install, so they are not a trivial part of plumbing and plumbing systems. Valves are technically accessories, but are generally discussed separately.

Pipe and plumbing fitting bodies are most commonly made from the same raw material as connecting pipe, eg, copper, steel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or other plastic. However, any material that is allowed by the code may be used, but must be compatible with the other materials in the system, the liquids being transported, and the interior and exterior temperatures and pressures of the system. For example, brass fittings are common in systems in other ways than copper piping and pipe systems. Fire, earthquake, and other hazards also influence which materials are appropriate.

Common accessories to install pipes and pipes. While there are hundreds of specialized manufactured fittings, some fittings are generally used in plumbing and plumbing systems.


It is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe allowing a change in direction, usually 90 ° or 45 °. The ends can be machined for butt welding, threading (usually female), or connected, etc. When the two ends differ in size, it is called a reducing or reducing elbow. Most elbows are available in short radius or long radius types. Short radius elbows have a center to end at equal distance to the NPS in inches, while the long radius is 1.5 times the NPS in inches. Short elbows are available in a universal size; long elbows are readily available in Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, plastic), PVC for DWV, sewage and central voids, and copper from the 1950s and 1960s for houses with copper drains.

Street elbow

It is a variant of the elbow, typically male to female connections.


A tee is used to combine or disperse a flow of liquid. The most common are equal inlet and outlet tees, but reducible tees are available as well.


A cross has one input and three outputs or connections, or vice versa. Crosses are common in fire fighting systems, but not in plumbing due to their additional cost compared to using two tees.


An adapter connects two pipes to each other. If the material and the size of the pipe are not the same, you can make a reduction, or an adaptation. The term expander is not used for an adapter as it increases the size of the pipe; instead reducer is used.


A type of pipe fitting, often liquid or gas proof, that covers the end of a pipe.


A union is similar to an adapter, except it is designed to allow quick and convenient disconnection of pipes for accessory replacement or maintenance. While an adapter requires solvent welding or being able to rotate all adjacent pipes as with a threaded adapter, a union provides a simple transition of the nut, allowing easy release at any time.


Short piece of pipe, usually threaded iron, brass, or copper; occasionally just bare copper. A nipple is defined as a short piece of pipe that has two male ends. It can generally be replaced using a street elbow.


Accessories and applications

Accessories are devices that use water without an additional source of energy. They include, for example:

  • Taps known as a key or pen.
  • Vanities, familiarly known as toilets or toilets
  • Urinals
  • Sinks, sinks, and sinks, tubs, and showers
  • Drinking fountains (uncooled or unheated)

Applications are devices that use water together with an additional source of energy. Every connection to these appliances incorporates an expulsion prevention principle in some way the minimum is an air gap. for example:

  • Dishwasher
  • Clothes washers
  • Sprinklers
  • Freezers
  • Water heaters
  • Water filtration systems
  • Water coolers

Plumber (Plumber)

A plumber is a person who specializes in the installation and maintenance of systems used for drinking (drinking) water, sewage, drainage, ventilation, heating and air conditioning, or process plant piping. industrial. In most jurisdictions piping for HVAC, fire protection, and industrial systems are installed by steam-fitters, pipe-fitters or “plumber gas-fitters.

Many in these businesses are members of organized working groups, while many are non-union. Years of training and experience are necessary to become a skilled plumber; Most jurisdictions also require plumbers to be licensed. A master plumber is one who demonstrates mastery of the plumbing business, has worked in the field for many years, is certified in various areas of plumbing, typically trains new plumbers in the business, and oversees large plumbing projects. Plumbing codes are strict, and the need for quality plumbing work is high due to the historical health and safety problems associated with declining water supplies and the removal of sewage.


Plumbers install and repair pipes, fittings, and other plumbing equipment used for water distribution, wastewater disposal, and vents in residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings. Plumbing is a traditional field that pays generally well, has good job security, and is currently in need of qualified individuals in many locations around the world. Many plumbers start their careers in plumbing as established plumber’s aides, while others enter formal training institutes. The word plumber dates from the Roman Empire. In Roman times, pipes were made of lead, or plumbum in Latin (that is why the symbol Pb is for lead on the periodic table of the elements). So,

Water system

Domestic water supply or system (DWS) is a comprehensive term for drinking water supply systems in residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings. Drinking water is drinking water, but it is used in more quantities for plumbing operating accessories so it is not used for drinking or cooking. This article is intended for the plumbing system supplier side, where traps, drains, and vents, rainwater, and surface and sub-surface water drainage, fire sprinklers, and other matters are covered in related articles.

Potable water supply

These facilities can come from various possible sources.

  • Municipal water supply
  • Water wells
  • Distributed by truck
  • Processed water from creeks, streams, rivers, lakes, water rain, etc.

Domestic water systems have developed since the first thinking man located his home near a water source, be it a stream or a river. The current also allowed the waste water to be sent away from his home. Modern indoor plumbing distributes clean, safe, potable water to each service point in the distribution system. It is imperative that the clean water is not contaminated by the waste water side of the process system. Historically, this contamination of drinking water has been the greatest killer of human beings.

Water source

Most modern western water systems are fed directly from a municipal water system by a high-pressure pipeline, generally located under the road or street. A water meter is installed to allow the supplier to charge appropriately for the use of water. Many houses in rural areas still use a cistern or well where a convenient water supply is not available; a pump and pressure tanks are used to create and maintain the system pressure needed to operate the plumbing fixtures.

Any external water supply is almost always a “cold” water supply. The cold water supply system may include filter or water softener applications. This cold water then feeds the pipe lines that require cold water. The largest users of cold water are outdoor toilets and hose taps, but cold drinking water is needed in sinks, sinks, bathtubs, showers, water fountains, humidifiers (sprayers), and also ice makers, for example. Cold water is also supplied to water heaters, if it is an equipped building.

Hot water

Domestic hot water is provided through water heater applications, or through district heating. The hot water from these units is then piped to the various pipes and others that require hot water, such as sinks, sinks, tubs, showers, washing machines, and dishwashers


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