What Is Fiber Optic Network;How Does It Works

fiber optic network guarantees a high level of reliability in the transmission of signals and data, voice and video.Fiber optic cables are used today to increase the speed of digital information transmission. These cables are  pure “glass wires” that have been coated in two layers of reflective plastic.Fiber-based systems can transmit billions of data bits per second, and they can even carry multiple signals along the same fiber using different color lasers.

Features And Benefits of Fiber Optic Network

  • Reduced Dimensions;
  • Ability to transport large amounts of information (A pair of fiber optics, the diameter of which can be compared to that of a hair, can transmit 2.5 million or more telephone calls at the same time. diameter of the order of 6 m!);
  • Immunity to electromagnetic interference;
  • Very abundant raw material;
  • Signal safety;
  • Easy installation;
  • Less deterioration over time compared to copper wires.

Fiber Optic Network; Disadvantages

  • High cost;
  • Fragility of optical fibers without encapsulation;
  • Difficulty branching (a point-to-point network would be more viable, otherwise “T” connections suffer from very high data losses);
  • Impossibility of remote feeding of repeaters;
  • Lack of standardization of optical components.

Types of fiber optics

The optical fibers can be basically in two ways:


  • It allows the use of only one signal of light by the fiber;
  • It has a nucleus of 8 to 9 μm and a shell of 125 μm;
  • Limited range of 4km for structured cabling;
  • Smaller dimensions than other types of fibers;
  • Higher bandwidth due to lower dispersion;
  • Uses wavelengths of 1,310 or 1550 nm;
  • Generally, laser is used as the source of signal generation


  • Most common type in inter- and intra-primary primary cabling;
  • It has a core of 50 or 62,5 μm (equivalent to one thousandth of a millimeter) and a shell of 125μm;
  • Allows the use of light sources of low occurrence such as LEDs (cheaper);
  • Limited range of 2km for structured cabling;
  • Large diameters facilitate the coupling of light sources and require little precision in the connectors;.

Difference between fiber optic and twisted pair

The main difference in comparison between a fiber optic cable and a twisted pair cable is the speed of information transfer and the absence of electromagnetic interference. The twisted pair cables is electromagnetic interference, which only activates in large industrial environments.

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