**Examples of Problem Formulation Papers Proposal Scientific Writing** – The world of education today is faced with various problems such as deviations that must be found solutions or solutions through systematic methods. Research was conducted to obtain answers or conclusions from several problems in human life, be it social, economic, agricultural, development and many others.

The position of the problem is very important in research, because with this problem a researcher can determine the objectives, methods, data analysis to be used. In other words, research is a way to solve problems that have been formulated in several points.

The formulation of the problem is a very important part of writing papers, both papers, reports, theses, and other scientific works. The formulation of the problem briefly reveals the background for the writing of scientific papers. The existence of problem formulations becomes a person’s limitations in compiling his scientific papers.

For further information, this article will explain the meaning, purpose, types and all forms that must be known in the formulation of the problem.

**Contents**

- Definition of Problem Formulation
- Type of Problem Formulation
- Descriptive
- Comparative
- Associative

- Characteristics of Problem Formulation
- Source of Problem Formulation
- Observation
- Deduction from theory
- Literature
- Social problem
- Personal experience
- Practical situation

- Purpose of Problem Formulation
- Criteria for Problem Formulation in Research
- Technique to Identify Problems in Research
- Examples of Problem Formulation Examples
- Example of Long Problem Formulation
- Example of problem formulation for research
- Examples of problem formulations for scientific papers
- Example of problem formulation for Papers
- Example of problem formulation for quantitative research
- Example of problem formulation for qualitative descriptive
- Examples of Biographical Paper Problem Formulations
- Example of Scientific Work Problem Formulation

## Definition of Problem Formulation

The formulation of the problem can be interpreted as a short writing that is in the opening section of a scientific paper. This section explains in detail the phenomena that occur in certain questions. The formulation of the problem is part of the problem that raises a question that will be sought for answers through data collection and data processing. The following is explained in advance regarding the problem from several experts:

According to Stonner (1982) defines problems as problems that are sought if there is a deviation from experience with reality, between what is planned and reality and the existence of competition and complaints.

According to Suryabrata (1994), it is explained that the problem is a gap between expectations and reality, between needs and reality and between what should be and what is real.

So it can be concluded that the formulation of the problem is a formula that questions a phenomenon that occurs due to gaps, and is used as limitations in research variables that need to be sought for answers and conclusions.

## Type of Problem Formulation

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There are several types of problem formulations in research that are often encountered, including:

### Descriptive

The formulation of the problem in descriptive research is often used in qualitative research, because in its formation it is done by linking one variable to another. The variables in descriptive research are often related but cannot be compared between existing variables.

The problem in the descriptive problem formulation is a problem with the independent variables only in one or more variables. Researchers will not make comparisons of one variable with another sample variable, but only look for relationships between variables.

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Some examples of descriptive problem formulations are:

- What is the public perception of state universities that are not legally incorporated?
- How well is the performance of the Dinas Pertanian in Indonesia?
- How effective is the Computer Based Management policy in Indonesian schools?
- How high is the productivity and financial profit level of the Production Unit in a Village-Owned Enterprise?
- How high is the level of community satisfaction with agricultural extension services in agriculture?
- How high are the reading interest and the average length of study per day of elementary school students in Indonesia?

### Comparative

In the type of comparative problem formulation, it is inversely proportional to the descriptive type, where the formulation of the comparative problem is a comparison obtained between variables without having to be described. In short, this type of problem formulation will compare one variable with another.

Comparisons between variables can be made between 1 other variable or more than 2 or different samples and at different times. Here are some problem formulations in comparative research:

- Are there differences in learning achievement between students from public and private universities? (learning achievement in two samples, namely public and private schools as research variables)
- Are there differences in immunity between children from the village and the city? (one variable two samples)
- Are there differences in learning motivation and learning outcomes between students who come from farmer, civil servant and private families? (two variables three samples)
- Are there differences in the professional competence of mathematics teachers between SD, SMP and SMA. (one variable for two groups, for three samples)
- Are there differences in rice productivity between the conventional system and the legowo row system?

### Associative

The formulation of the problem using an associative model is formed from the relationship and also the comparison between variables. In short, this model is known as a mixed model. Making the problem formulation closer to several related questions, then these questions will be answered in the discussion of scientific papers. There are three forms of relationship in this type, among others:

**Symmetry relationship**

A relationship between two or more variables which coincidentally occur together. Examples of problem formulations include:

- Is there a relationship between hair color and the intelligence of students at school?
- Is there a relationship between the number of televisions in rural areas and the population?
- Is there a relationship between the house near the airport and the number of children?
- Is there a relationship between the number of payments sold and the number of students in the school?

Examples of research titles are as follows:

- The relationship between hair color and the intelligence of students in school?
- The relationship between the number of televisions in rural areas and the population?
- The relationship between the house near the airport and the number of children?
- The relationship between the number of paying paid and the number of students in the school?

**Causal relationship**

A causal relationship is a relationship that is causal in nature, so there are independent variables (variables that influence) and the dependent variable (variables that are affected). Some examples of causal problem formulations are:

Is there an effect of parental education on children’s learning achievement? (Parents ‘education as the independent variable and learning achievement as the dependent variable)

How much influence does the classroom layout have on students’ learning comfort in SMP?

Is there an effect of farmer knowledge on the level of productivity of the harvest?

How much influence do the curriculum, the quality of teachers and educational facilities have on the achievement of high school students?

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Example of research title:

- The effect of parental education on children’s learning achievement? (parental education as the independent variable and learning achievement as the dependent variable)
- The effect of classroom layout on students’ learning comfort in SMP?
- The influence of farmer knowledge on the level of productivity of the harvest?
- The effect of curriculum, teacher quality and educational facilities on high school student achievement?

**Interactive or reciprocal relationship**

Interactive or reciprocal relationships, namely relationships that influence each other where it is not known which the independent and dependent variables are. Here are some examples of interactive relationship problem formulas:

- The relationship between motivation and achievement of farmers in Dolopo District. (In this example motivation affects achievement but also motivation is influenced by achievement).
- The relationship between intelligence and wealth. Intelligence can lead to wealth, but a rich person can also increase intelligence.

## Characteristics of Problem Formulation

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In the formulation of the problem, there are several characteristics contained therein, among others:

**Load variable relationships**

Generally, the formulation of the problem must be clear in showing the variables to be handled in the research. Then, the research must also explain the treatment of existing variables. After determining the variables and their relationship, the research no longer departs from being explorative but departs from an empty state.

The researcher is ready to be in a state of searching for answers and not speculative answers. A good question is one that is not only made up, but also found.

**Stated clearly and unambiguously in some form of question**

The formulation of the problem is a research question that will seek the truth and answer. so that it needs to be formulated in an interrogative sentence. The curiosity of a human being is indicated by asking a few questions. The problem must be formulated in the form of an interrogative sentence, as an indicator of the spirit of curiosity.

Formulating the previous problem in the form of an interrogative sentence, a researcher is in a position ready to take steps to find out the truth and the answer. The problem question encourages the researcher to define the method, design the design, select the theory used, design the data collection analysis tools, and design the techniques needed to analyze the data collected.

**It is possible to collect data to answer questions**

Problems found must be impirically tested. The variables found have implications and data collection can be done in testing. Variables that are very difficult to find or collect data will hinder the process of analyzing data and finding answers to these problems.

In qualitative research where the majority of the variables are included in descriptive data, it requires open conclusions to be verified. Data verification can be done when data collection is done empirically, objectively, can be observed and measured. So, it is very necessary to formulate problems whose variables can be searched for data.

**Moral or ethical positions are not stated**

Questions in scientific research are required to be neutral. Moral or ethical problems related to statements of good-bad, beautiful-bad, success-poor and so on which are full of moralistic discrimination need to be avoided. For example: bad teachers, rich students, bad students and so on need to be avoided.

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Such questions are bad questions, the data validation procedure will be difficult because the variables asked are racist or discriminatory. Science should be free from negative and neutral values so as not to be biased. In close quantitative research that is robust and measurable, objective and testable, the bias variable should not be used.

Therefore, the problem to be formulated must not be moralistic and valuative. Ethics, norms and morals that have been attached to our cultural customs become the limits of a researcher so that the criteria for variety are not controversial.

## Source of Problem Formulation

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Sources of problem formulation in a study are obtained from several sources, one or more sources. Some sources that are used as references for researchers in finding problem formulations include:

### Observation

Observation is the source most often used by researchers because it is rich in research problems. Most practical decisions are based on presumptions that are not supported by data impurity. Research problems can be raised from several observations of certain relationships that still do not have a basis for adequate explanation or answers.

The investigations carried out are likely to generate new theories, break theories or complement existing theories. Practical problem solving recommendations, identification of problems in variables that are not yet in the literature are also the research results based on observations.

### Deduction from theory

A theory is a concept that is still a general principle that can be broken at any time before empirical testing is carried out. Generally, the theory in general and the development of the increasingly advanced times can be refuted or refined based on the findings that are found today. The investigation of a problem that comes from the theory is useful to explain empirically the practice of the theory.

### Literature

The literature generally comes from researchers’ recommendations on the results of their research reports. A researcher has a limit of time, effort and cost which results in all problems that cannot be answered at that time. So, recommendations or notes will be given so that further researchers can continue the results of the research.

Problems from the researchers’ recommendations can also be re-examined with or without differentiating variations. The goal is to test the answers that have been obtained and the truths stated by previous researchers. Thus, replication can increase the validity of the study.

### Social problem

Social problems can also be used as a formulation of research problems. Social problems that continue to develop are generally analyzed using a qualitative approach. The data and variables that appear will be descriptive, objective and subjective suitable for qualitative research.

Some social problems that occur such as student fights between schools can be used as research on the effectiveness of moral education in schools. In addition, the large number of undergraduate graduate unemployed can be used as a research on the suitability of the curriculum with company needs.

### Personal experience

Personal experiences that are felt directly can be used as a problem statement. These problems arise and are experienced by ourselves so that the data analysis is easier. However, this source can be subjective to the researcher so it is necessary to avoid perceptions of their own.

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The results of empirical testing of the problems that arise in us will answer and get a deeper understanding. For example: breakfast on your own health and so on.

### Practical situation

At a certain stage of decision making, a researcher often insists on conducting evaluative research. The results of these studies are very helpful to form the basis for further research. In general, research based on practical situations in answering the problem as a whole still has shortcomings due to limited time, effort and cost.

## Purpose of Problem Formulation

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The process of solving the problem is closely related to perfection in scientific writing. This formula has a function and purpose, namely:

**Become an excuse**

The purpose of making the problem in the formulation of the problem is to become a reason for the need to do research. In the research, questions will be presented as problem formulations that aim to make readers understand the ideas and objectives to be achieved, even though they are brief.

**Become a guideline**

The existence of the problem formulation functions as a limit for a researcher in conducting his research. Research certainly has time, energy and cost limitations, so that with limitations in problem formulation, researchers can focus on answering existing problems. In theses and papers, this process becomes a guide in answering research results in the discussion or content chapter.

**Specifies the data type**

Determination of the problem formulation aims also as a reference for researchers to choose analysis tools and data analysis techniques. The existence of the problem formulation will make the researcher easier to take the research instrument in the form of the variables to be tested and become the research limitation.

**Make it easier to determine the sample**

The existence of a problem formulation will make it easier for researchers to take the population and research samples. This is because the large population with limited time, cost and energy needs to be narrowed down to the various criteria that exist in the problem formulation. Dividing the population into several sections with their respective characteristics and criteria makes research more focused and focused on the problem.

## Criteria for Problem Formulation in Research

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According to Kerlinger, (2006) there are three criteria in determining a good problem and a good statement, here are the three:

**The problem must reveal the relationship between two or more variables**, so that the problems that exist can be made of the following statements:

- Is variable A tied to variable B?
- Does learning motivation affect learning outcomes?

**The problem must be stated clearly and unambiguously in the form of a question**. Questions that are ambiguous and unclear will cause the reader to have difficulty understanding the goals the researcher wants to achieve.**Problems and statements must be formulated in certain ways that correlate with empirical testing**. So, when formulating problems, testing and data collection should be carried out.

## Technique to Identify Problems in Research

Identifying problems in research aims to find problems that are important for research. There are so many problems that arise in just one situation, so the researcher must be observant and smart in choosing the problem to be raised and the answer is needed. Problem identification can be done by grouping as well as mapping problems systematically.

The following are things that need to be considered when researchers identify existing problems, including:

**Essential**. This means that the problems to be identified are problems in the order of the most important among the problems that exist.**Urgen**. This means that the existing problem is a very urgent problem to find answers or solutions to.- M
**Problem has benefits when solved**. Every problem that will be resolved will certainly produce answers or recommendations for benefits for individuals or groups.

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## Examples of Problem Formulation Examples

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To make it easier for you to do research and understand the problem formulations, the following examples are given :

### Example of Long Problem Formulation

The following is an example of problem formulation in a study entitled “The relationship between learning motivation and learning achievement of junior high school students in Surabaya in 2019”.

**Background**

The research background entitled “The relationship between learning motivation and learning achievement of junior high school students in Surabaya in 2019” is as follows:

- The low learning achievement of Indonesian students at the Asian level and the low index of human resources (HR) in Indonesia.
- The high unemployment rate with high graduates reflects the low recognition of the world of work for these graduates in Indonesia.
- The high number of students failing to pass the National Examination in Surabaya.
- Low learning motivation that makes the mental education “from graduation” and low competition culture between students in pursuit of achievement.
**Identification of the problem**

Some of the problems that are correlated and have the potential to be related to learning achievement are as follows:

- The relationship between motivation and learning achievement.
- The relationship between economic status and academic achievement.
- The relationship between life style and learning achievement.
- The relationship between school infrastructure and learning achievement.
- The relationship between the quality of teaching staff and learning achievement.
- The relationship between the school environment and learning achievement.
- The relationship between friends studying with learning achievement.
**Border problems**

Limiting the problem only discusses “the relationship between learning motivation and learning achievement” to be identified further

**Formulation of the problem**

Based on the formulation of the problem above, the following problems can be formulated:

- Is there a relationship between student motivation and learning achievement of junior high school students in Surabaya in 2019?
- What is the level of learning motivation towards the learning achievement of junior high school students in Surabaya in 2019?

### Example of problem formulation for research

In the example of problem formulation for our research, we indicate the title of the research, namely “Making Biscuits Made from Cassava Flour and Seaweed to Provide Enough Nutrition for Babies”. Based on the background of the title, several problems can be formulated as follows:

- How do you process cassava flour and seaweed into nutritious biscuits for babies?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of biscuits made from cassava flour and seaweed for babies?
- How to increase the economic value of cassava flour for the community?
- How to increase the economic value of processed seaweed for the community?
- How to develop and conserve cassava flour and seaweed as substitute commodities in Indonesia?
- What is the strategy for developing biscuits made from cassava flour and seaweed to provide adequate nutrition for babies?
- How do mothers perceive the presence of biscuits made from cassava flour and seaweed to provide adequate nutrition for babies?

### Examples of problem formulations for scientific papers

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The formulation of problems that exist in scientific papers (KTI) is closely related to the solutions that will be offered in solving problems. An example is the problem of traditional handling of diarrhea that is offered.Therefore, the formulations of the problems are as follows:

- What are the contents and functions of guava leaves for the management of diarrhea?
- How is the process of making a drink made from guava leaves to treat diarrhea?
- How do you consume a drink made from guava leaves to treat diarrhea?

### Example of problem formulation for Papers

Generally, the formulation of the problem in the paper will be at the beginning of the paragraph and lies in the back of the paper. Examples of problem formulations in papers are as follows:

- How do you deal with itching in Islamic boarding schools so that you can maintain the health of the students?
- How to socialize betel leaf as a traditional medicine for itching in Islamic boarding schools so as to provide alternative treatment for students?
- How do students respond to Islamic boarding schools (Islamic boarding schools) with the socialization of alternative medicine made from betel leaf for itching?

### Example of problem formulation for quantitative research

Quantitative research is research that uses analytic and descriptive using statistical data. Examples of problem formulations in quantitative research include:

- How to design a Solar Cell (solar power plant) design: the concept of solar cell lights as a solution to energy supply scarcity for rural communities.
- How is the relevance of using solar cells (solar power plants): the concept of solar cell lights as a solution to the scarcity of energy supply for rural communities.

### Example of problem formulation for qualitative descriptive

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Qualitative research is research that uses descriptive methods through in-depth approaches to sources. Examples of problem formulations against the background of the development of English in national scale education. The following problem formulas can be made:

- How to realize the universal GUBAH policy issued by the government to help improve English language proficiency for rural communities?
- How is the implementation of the GUBAH policy to increase the positive impact on English for rural communities in Indonesia?
- What are the advantages of GUBAH’s policy in, for example, the improvement of English language skills for rural communities issued by the government?

### Examples of Biographical Paper Problem Formulations

- How was the childhood and adolescence of Ir. Soekarno?
- How is the educational background of Ir. Soekarno?
- How is the family of Ir. Soekarno?
- What is the role of Ir. Soekarno against the invaders?
- How was the end of the life of Ir. Soekarno?

### Example of Scientific Work Problem Formulation

- Is there any influence from the implementation of the BPMP2T policy?
- Does competency affect the performance of BPMP2T officials?
- Is there any influence from the implementation of policies in the regions and the competence of the instruments when together at BPMP2T work?