History of Scouting – Praja Muda Karana or better known as Pramuka is a routine activity carried out by an organization and has developed internationally. Usually this event is often carried out by elementary to high school students and it is mandatory. Even though his name is familiar to the general public, in fact there are still many who do not know about the history of scouts .
- Review of the History of Scouts in the World
- Review of the History of Scouts in Indonesia
- A month after the proclamation
- The era of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX
- The Scout Movement in Indonesia was born
- The Function of Movement in Indonesian Scout History
- Important Organizational Structure in Boy Scouts
Review of the History of Scouts in the World
Scouting is not only done by people in Indonesia, but also throughout the world. Because in fact the scouts themselves are not the creation of indigenous people, so it is not surprising if there is also a history of scouting in the world. Well, to find out about the ins and outs as a whole, just look at the following explanation.
The history of scouting began in 1907. Where a Lieutenant General of the British Armed Forces named Robert Baden-Pawell and the founder of the Boy’s Brigade made his first camp on Brownsea Island, England. The innovation to create the movement appeared when Robert Baden-Pawell and his war troops fought tooth and nail to defend the city in South Africa, Mafeking. The city was allegedly besieged by attacks from the Boer army.
At that time the troops he led were badly defeated by the opposing forces, so to minimize this, Robert created a group of youths to become volunteer soldiers. Their main task is to assist the military to defend the city. They are only burdened with tasks that are quite light but have an important meaning, such as, giving messages from Robert to all military forces in the city.
Although only a simple upbringing, the young men were able to complete their duties well, so that Robert’s troops managed to defend the city that was attacked for several months. As a token of appreciation for this success, the volunteer soldiers received a badge of honor. Where there is a picture on that badge and it is used as the logo for the International Scout Movement, until recently.
The year 1920 became a point of scouting history that was very memorable for its members. Because, this year there is a World Jamboree which will coincide at Olympia Hall, London. There are about 27 scout countries who were invited to attend this event. Right at the event, Robert Baden-Pawell was officially appointed as the Father of the World Scouts or the Scouts (Chief Scout of The World).
Jamboree management does not stop only in that year, but also in several other periods. Like Jamboree II (1924) located in Denmark, Jamboree III (1929) located in the territory of the UK, Jamboree IV (1933) in Hungary, Jamboree V (1937) in the territory of the Netherlands, Jamboree VI (1947) in France, and the last XX Jamboree (2003) in Thailand.
Right in 1914 Robert Baden-Pawell wrote a manual which served as a Scout Formation course. However, unfortunately he had to wait a few more years to implement the program. In the end, it was only in 1919 that the course was implemented properly.
Robert did not only compile these guidelines to develop scouting activities, but with a plot of land he obtained from his friend WF de Bois Maclarren, he built a Scout Training center. The name of the place is Gilwell Park.
The history of world scouting does not end there, in 1920 the International Council was formed consisting of 9 members with the existence of the Secretariat Bureau in the UK, London. It is not known the exact reason in 1958 the World Scouting Bureau was moved to Canada, Ottawa. Meanwhile, in 1968, the bureau moved again to Switzerland, Geneva.
Meanwhile, the leadership of the World Scouting Bureau since 1920 has been held successively by Hebert Martin from England, Colonel JS Nilson from England, and Major General DC Spry from Canada. In 1965 there was a replacement by RT Lund, then in 1968 it was replaced again by DR. Laszio Nagy who served as Secretary General.
The Putera World Scouting Bureau has several regional offices in Nigeria, Costa Rica, Switzerland, the Philippines, and so on. Meanwhile, the Women’s World Scout Bureau has several regional locations in Africa, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and others.
Ernest Thompson submitted his handwritten book entitled The Birchbark Roll of The Woodcraft Indians to the Father of the World Scouts in 1906. The contents of the book were more of a scouting guide for the youth of that era. Then Ernest held a small camp in England, Brownsea, which was attended by 21 people from various backgrounds.
In 1922 the book Rovering to Success for Rover Scouts was published, followed by a book called Scouting For Boys. Since the book was published, the development of scouts has progressed and been recognized by the Irish and British public. Then in 1910 the Scout Parade was held for the first time in the country of London which was attended by around 10,000 teenage girls and boys.
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In that same year Germany, Sweden, the United States, Denmark, Mexico, Russia, Singapore, Greece, India, the Netherlands, Norway, Finland, France, and Argentina have registered scouting organizations. With the history of Boy Scouts that focus their programs on adolescents aged 11-18 years, it has received a pretty good response. So as to make the Scout movement more and more programs in it.
Among them are leadership education for program supervisors, early childhood education, work units, adolescents, scouting education for girls, etc. Even though this activity was initially only recognized by the local strata, over time its recognition has reached the International Quarter.
Review of the History of Scouts in Indonesia
Even though scouts come into this country quite late, there is also a history of Indonesian scouts that the younger generation must also know. Because there are some very significant differences with origins in other countries.
A month after the proclamation
If Indonesia became independent on August 17, 1945, the scouts would only be recognized by the public a month after independence. At that time, there were a number of scouting figures gathered in the city of Yogyakarta. The purpose of the association is to form an organization called the Indonesian Scout Committee to hold a congress. On 27-29 December 1945 the congress was held and produced Pandu Rakyat Indonesia.
The association that was held received support from a number of leaders and figures and was strengthened by the Promise of the Sakti Association. Then the Indonesian government itself began to recognize it as the only scout organization established by a decree from the Minister of Education, Teaching and Culture. This scouting history is the forerunner in Indonesia.
Right on August 17, 1948, there were difficult times that Pandu Rakyat Indonesia had to go through. Because at that time there was a campfire activity located in the courtyard of the Pegangsaan Timur 56 building, Jakarta, the attack of Dutch weapons bombarded. The attack caused Soeprapto to die as a scout and patriot who devoted himself and poured all his love for the Indonesian nation.
This situation has made several other associations such as PPI (Pandu Puteri Indonesia), KPI (Indonesian Putera Scouting), and KIM (Young Indonesian Scouting) started to be established. Meanwhile, there was also another association that was successfully established, namely Ipindo. Ipindo itself is a federation organization for boy scouting, and in 1953 this association was able to become one of the members of scouting worldwide.
Not only were associations for boys established, but there was also a federation of the Indonesian Girl Scout Association (PKPI) and the Indonesian Girl Scout Association (POPPINDO). Both organizations had welcomed Robert Baden-Powell to Indonesia. Right on the 10th Indonesian anniversary, Ipindo held an International Jamboree which was located at Pasar Minggu, Ragunan, on 10-20 August 1945, Jakarta.
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Meanwhile in January 1957 Ipindo also held a seminar to ensure the preservation and purity of the scouting life. This seminar was held in Tugu, Bogor and provides the results of a formula that can be used as a reference for every scout movement in Indonesia.
The era of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX
If the father of world scouts is Robert Baden-Powel, but the one who got this title in Indonesia is Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX. According to scout history, Sri Sultan is a figure who provoked the birth of scouts in Indonesia. In fact, he has served as chairman of the National Quartir for 4 consecutive terms since the Boy Scouts were founded. Sri Sultan is considered to be the most instrumental in uniting various Indonesian scout organizations into one forum, namely scouts.
When he was the chairman of Kwarnas he was often called Kak Sultan HB IX. He went through tiring struggles without complaining in order to get the scouts to advance in Indonesia. In fact, he is willing to make long trips in remote areas to carry out camp activities and also introduce the importance of scouts. Therefore, it is not surprising that the title of father scout of Indonesia is held by him.
The Scout Movement in Indonesia was born
- Basic Scout Movement
The existence of a series of scouting historical events that led to the formation of the movements in it are actually related to one another. Among them, such as the speech of the President of the Mandatary of the Assembly which took place on March 9, 1961, at the Merdeka Palace to be precise. This incident was later called the Day of the Shooting Scout Movement.
- Issuance of a decision from the President
On May 20, 1961, a presidential decree number 238 related to the scouting movement emerged and made it the only organization that was mandated for scouting for Indonesia’s young generation. On that date there was also the determination of the National Awakening Day and it was better known as the beginning of work.
- Statements from a number of representatives of the organization
July 30, 1961 is a historic day to commemorate the birth of the Boy Scout movement. How could it not be timely that Indonesian scouts voluntarily entered the Scout Movement organization which coincided at the Senayan Sports Palace. This event became known as the Scout Movement Pledge Day.
- Inauguration from Mapinas
After several events had passed, on August 14, 1961, Kwarnari and Kwarnas at the State Palace followed the procession of introducing scouts to the public. The first event was the awarding of the banner of the Scout Movement which later gave birth to a new name, Boy Scout Day.
The Function of Movement in Indonesian Scout History
- An event of service shown for adults
Maybe scout children are only considered a fun activity that contains various types of games. However, this is very different for adults who make scouting as a means of service or duty that is voluntary and sincere. Adults certainly have a responsibility to complete their duties properly in the organization.
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- Used as a tool for all societies and organizations
The scout movement is not the goal of public education. However, it functions as a tool to meet the needs of the local community and achieve the goals of the organizations it participates in. If in the history of the scouts many youths were trained to face the enemy using the tools around, and that is the case today. it’s just that its use is not for war anymore but as an alternative tool in times of crisis.
- Become an activity that is quite interesting
In the scouting organization, youth and children will be invited to immerse themselves in nature and play various exciting games. However, games and activities are not just for fun, but there are educational purposes that can be used someday. That is why many young people are attracted to scout organizations because they are considered an interesting activity.
Important Organizational Structure in Boy Scouts
- Advisory Council
The supervisory board in the scouting structure is a body that has the duty and responsibility to provide guidance and assistance of a moral nature. Such as financial, front groups, materials, etc. The assemblies were established at the national level to the saka.
Now, each level of the supervisory board itself has several different names. Among them are Mabinas (national), Mabida (regional), Mabicab (branch), Mabiran (twig), Mabigus (front group) and Mabi Saka (saka).
The Supreme Audit Agency (BPK) is not only owned by the state, but also scout organizations. This independent body was established by the Scout Movement Deliberation and will be fully responsible to its founder.
Quartir is a device formed to achieve the goals of the scout movement. There are several levels of kwartir in this organization, such as Kwarnas (national), Kwarda (regional), Kwarcab (branch), Kwarran (twig), Korgudep (group).
- Front cluster
Commonly called gusdep, this structure is the base for all the scout organization students who become a forum for the education of movements in it. Usually in the front group students will be forged to know several aspects of scouting until they understand and are trained.
The Work Unit or Saka is a forum for scouting activities that are used to improve the skills, abilities and knowledge of students. Of course, all these insights can be used as a real dedication to the surrounding community.