A particular fruit is declared as the national fruit of a country only when it satisfies some key basic requirements. This fruit should be a rich part of the fruit in some of the country’s cultural features such as the country’s history. It should also have adequate presence in the religious and spiritual heritage of the country.
Mango, called the king of fruits, is the national fruit of India. Its sweet aroma and delectable taste has won the hearts of many people around the world. Mango is one of the most cultivated tropical fruits in the world. As the national fruit of India, it represents prosperity, abundance and prosperity in the image of the country.
Mango is one of the most widely grown fruits of tropical countries. In India, mango is cultivated in almost all parts except hilly areas. Mango is a rich source of vitamins A, C and D in India. We have hundreds of varieties of mangoes. They are of various sizes, shapes and colors.
Mango has been cultivated in India since time immemorial. Even in our mythology and history there are stories of mangoes – it was also praised by the famous Indian poet Kalidas. Alexander the Great, together with Hieun Tsang, tasted the mango. The great Mughal king, Akbar, is said to have planted more than 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga (modern Bihar). Mango is eaten cooked and is also used for pickles.
Fresh mangoes on a market stall
The pleasure of mango and its divine taste have been known to Indians from a very young age. Fossil evidence traces the presence of mangoes in India, Bangladesh and Myanmar 25–30 million years ago. It is referred to in Vedic scriptures such as Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Puranas, Rasala and Sahakara.
The importance of mangoes in Buddhism was underscored by the fact that Lord Buddha had chosen to rest under the shade of a mango tree and that Buddhist monks carried mangoes with him everywhere. Alexander is said to have returned to Europe with several varieties of great fruits. Foreign travelers like Megasthenes and Hisun-Tsang greatly admired the taste of fruits and noted that mango trees were planted along the roads as a symbol of prosperity by Indian rulers.
Indian mango or Mangifera indica are found prominently in southern Asia, particularly in India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. It is believed that Buddhist monks introduced the fruit to Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia and China in the fourth century BCE. Since then it has been found in East Africa by the Persians and in West Africa and Brazil by the Portuguese.
Mango tree, leaves and fruits:
Mango trees are medium to large in size with a height of between 10-40 meters. They are as wide as an average diameter of 10 meters and are also evergreen. The bark is dark brown. The leaves are elongated and are 15–45 cm in length. The upper surface is dark green with a waxy layer while the bottom is light green.
The leaves are very closely arranged together and divided into groups of 5 or more. Flowers are produced in terminal panels that are approximately 20 cm in length. The flowers are white, 5–10 mm long with petals small and have a sweet smell.
Raw fruits are usually green in color but ripe fruits vary in color and range from green to yellow to orange to red. The fruits are oblique in shape and are fleshy. The length of the fruit varies from 25–40 cm.
India produces the most mangoes in the world and India accounts for about half of the world’s total production. In Europe, it is grown in Andalusia, Spain. In the United States, mango is cultivated in South Florida and California regions. There is also considerable cultivation of mangoes in the Caribbean Islands. In India, the state of Andhra Pradesh produces the most mangoes.
Mango farming is generally done in tropical and warm sub-tropical climates, which is up to 1400 meters above sea level. During flowering, moisture, rain and frost adversely affect the productivity of mangoes. The wet monsoon and dry summer are ideal for mango cultivation. Mango trees prefer slightly acidic soils with pH ranging from 5.5–7.5. They can grow well in well drained laterite and alluvial soils that are at least 15.24 cm deep.
The method of vegetable cultivation is preferred by farmers and techniques like inarching, veneer grafting and epicotyl grafting are used. Well-nourished plants start bearing fruit after 3-5 years of planting, depending on the type of cultivation. For most tenants, fruits are harvested between February and August. Mango fruits have a short life – about 2-3 weeks, so they are stored in low temperatures of 12–13 ° C.
Ripe mangoes are generally sweet although some varieties may retain a sour taste even after ripening. The texture of the pulp is soft pulp and firm or fibrous, with different cultivation. Sour pomegranate mangoes are used in a wide variety of pickles and chutneys or can be eaten raw with salt and chillies. Drinks like mango panna and mango are made from raw and ripe mango pulp respectively. Ripe mango pulp is used to make many sweets like mango kulfi, ice cream and sorbet.
Mangoes are a rich source of anti-oxidants such as quercetin, estragalin and gallic acid which have been shown to be effective in certain types of cancer. High levels of fiber, pectin, and vitamin C help reduce the level of low density lipoproteins in the blood. Mango pulp is a rich source of vitamin A which helps improve vision.
Mango fruits have low glycemic index and are suitable for patients with diabetes. The abundance of vitamins and carotenoids present in mango pulp helps to boost the immune system. Consumption of mango reduces the risk of asthma as well as muscle damage.
Different uses in mango food:
Mangoes are generally sweet, although the taste and texture of marmalade vary in different cultivars; Some have a soft, pulpy texture similar to an overgrowth plum, while others are strong, such as a cantaloupe or avocado, and some may have a fibrous texture.
Mango is used for making raw food, cooked food, making chutneys and juices, although sometimes there is a possibility of blisters or swelling in the lips and mouth of raw mangoes.
Mango is used in many ways in food. Sour, arino mangoes are used in chutneys, athanu, pickles, etc., or they can be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce. Mango panna is a summer drink made from mango.
Jelly is also made from mango pulp or cooked with red gram and green chillies and can be served with cooked rice. Mango lassi is popular all over South Asia, ripe mango or mango pulp is prepared by mixing it with buttermilk and sugar. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries.
Aamras is a popular condensed juice made from mangoes with sugar or milk, and is consumed with chapatis. Ripe mango pulp is also used to make jam to mangara. Andhra Awekaya is a pickle made from raw, undercooked, pulp and sour mangoes, mixed with chilli powder, fenugreek seeds, mustard powder, salt and peanut oil.
Mango is also used to prepare yogurt in Andhra Pradesh. Gujaratis use mango to make chunda (spicy, grated mango dish). Mango marmalade, Muramba (a sweet, grated mango), amchur (dry and powdered raw mango), and pickles, pickled mustard-oil pickles and wine are used to make.
Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, lowered, folded and then cut. These bars are similar to dried guava fruits available in some countries. The fruit is also added to cereal products such as muesli and oat granola.
Uncooked mangoes can be eaten (plain or spicy) with bugoong (especially in the Philippines), fish sauce, vinegar, soy sauce or salt water. Dried strips of sweet, ripe mangoes (sometimes combined with seedless tamarind to make mangorinds) are also popular. Mango can be used to make juices, mango nectar, and is also used as a flavoring and major ingredient in ice cream and sorbet.
Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas fracas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, which is a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular as a main ingredient in a combination of hot chili powder and a stick steeped in salt or fresh fruit. In Central America, mangoes are either mixed with green, salt, vinegar, black pepper and hot sauce, or cooked in various forms.
Mango pieces can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or as a milkshake with milk and ice. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a dessert.
In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are cooked with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Green mango can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried prawns. Mango with condensed milk can be used as a topping for shaved ice.
Mangoes are the most prevalent fruit in India. Mango tree wood is used for low cost furniture, packing etc. Tannin obtained from the bark is used in the leather industry. Although India leads mango production, most of it is consumed by the country’s population and only a small part is exported.
Since ancient times, mango has been given a special place in India. The fruit is extremely tasty in taste and is called ‘food of the gods’. It is a source of celebration among people of all social backgrounds. A fully ripe mango is a symbol of attainment and prosperity.
The mangoes are also representative of the country’s gift to the world. The Jain goddess Ambika is depicted sitting under a mango tree. Mango flowers are an integral part of Saraswati Puja. Mango leaves are considered auspicious and together with five mango leaves is an essential component of Hindu rituals.