Definition and Approach of Geography

Definition of Geography

When viewed etiomologically geography comes from two Greek words, namely geo and graphein . Geo means earth and graphein means writing or explaining. That means knowledge that explains or learns about the earth.

While the definition of geography according to experts will be elaborated as follows:

  1. According to Erastothenesgeography comes from the word geographica , which has a meaning of depiction of the earth.
  2. According to Bintartogeography is a science that studies the causal relationships of symptoms on the surface of the earth. Both physical relationships and those related to the life of living things are complete with their problems. Where this is done through environmental, spatial and regional approaches for the benefit of the program, process, and also the success of development.
  3. According to Ferdinand von Richthofen,geography is the study of symptoms and also the nature of the earth’s surface and its inhabitants. Then the study is arranged based on its location and try to explain the mutual relationship between symptoms and the nature of these characteristics.
  4. According to the results of seminars and workshops in Semarang Semarangin 1988, geography is a science that studies the differences and similarities of geospheric phenomena using a territorial and environmental perspective in spatial contexts.

The word geo itself is not only used in geography. However, some branches of science also use the word geo. This branch of science is a branch of science which studies the earth as its main topic. Some branches of science that use the word geo are as follows:

  1. Geology, is the study of the earth’s crust or crust. Where the main objective of this study is to find out about the history of the development of the earth’s crust.
  2. Geomorphology, is the study of changes in the shape of the earth caused by the influence of endogenous, exogenous, and human intervention.
  3. Geophysics, is the study of the interior of the earth with the help of physics, mathematics and chemistry. The main focus of this science is to know the processes that take place in the earth.
  4. Geodesy, is the study of the earth in terms of shape and size, both in parts per section and the earth or as a whole which is closely related to the mapping of the shape of the earth’s surface.

Geography is different from the branches of science above. Geography focuses on the symptoms that occur on the face of the earth or the geosphere, both relating to the environmental conditions of nature and life on earth.

The geosphere itself includes the environment of the earth’s crust or crust (lithosphere), the marine and terrestrial aquatic environment (hydrosphere), the air environment both on earth and up to a certain height (atmosphere), and the living environment (biosphere) that resides in the lithosphere, hydrosphere or atmosphere.

Geography Approach

Geography uses two approaches to study its knowledge, namely the material object approach and the formal object approach. The following is a brief explanation of the two approaches.

  1. Material Object Approach

The material object approach is an approach to the contents of the study or study objectives. So the material geographic material approach is the content or target of the study of geography. The geography study is as follows:

  1. The atmosphereis the air that envelops the earth.
  2. Pedosphere is a layer of soil on the face of the earth.
  3. Biosphere is life on earth.
  4. Lithosphere is the earth’s crust or earth’s crust.
  5. Hydrosphere is water on the face of the earth.
  6. Anthroposphere is a human being on earth.
  7. Formal Approach

Formal approach is one of the approaches in studying a science. Where every science has a different formal object. For example, geography has a material object of the same geographic phenomenon as other sciences. But despite having similarities in material objects, geography has formal objects that are different from the others. Therefore, geography can become its own science without having any other science.

Geography simply answers various questions raised by humans. The question was asked in order to deal with phenomena, problems, events, or ways of acting. These questions include what ( what ), where ( where ), how much ( how much / many ), why ( why ), when ( when ), who ( who ) and also how ( how ).

Geography can be analyzed using spatial, environmental, and regional analysis methods. The following is an explanation of the three methods:

  1. Spatial Analysis

Spatial analysis is an analysis used in order to study formal objects to answer the question where the geosphere is. Therefore spatial analysis is related to the ‘ where ‘ question .

  1. Environmental Analysis

Environmental analysis is a spatial analysis that is centered on differences in variables from one place to another. This environmental analysis examines between human variables and their environment in a place.

  1. Territorial Analysis

Territorial analysis is an analysis that examines an area on the surface of the earth. Where the region has unique characteristics that can be distinguished from other regions. This analysis is a combination of the two previous analyzes, namely spatial and environmental analysis.

Thus the explanation of the understanding and approach of geography this time. If there is anything that needs to be added or corrected please give your opinion in the comments column. Hopefully useful and happy learning.

by Abdullah Sam
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