Biology is defined as the study of everything related to living things. These living creatures, both plants and animals and humans. Biology has various branches of science, such as other sciences.
Biology has twenty-four branches. The branches of biological science, can be explained as follows.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about bacteria.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about microorganisms.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about cells.
- Is a branch of biology that studies the world of plants.
- Is a branch of biology that studies the animal world.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about mammals.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about mushrooms.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about insects.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about birds.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about viruses.
- It is a branch of biology that studies plant culture.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about algae.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about enzymes.
- It is a branch of biology that studies the grouping of living things.
- It is a branch of biology that studies inheritance.
- Is a branch of biology that studies the application of the application of biological processes in an integrated manner.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about organs.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about hormones.
- It is a branch of biology that studies the interrelationships between living things and their environment.
- Is a branch of biology that studies the development of embryos.
- Is a branch of biology that studies the function of organisms.
- Is a branch of biology that studies the structure of the inner body in living things.
- Is a branch of biology that studies body tissue.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about molluscs, including snails, squid, and others.
- Is a branch of biology that studies the immune system or the body’s immune system.
- It is a branch of biology that studies disease and its effects on humans.
- It is a branch of biology that studies the development of living things from zygotes to adults.
- Is a branch of biology that studies about disease transmission.
As a science, biology has several objects of study, such as other sciences. Objects of biological studies include humans, animals and microorganisms. These microorganisms, both can be seen by the naked eye or can be seen using the aid of a microscope.
The level of organization of life, which starts from the cell. Then, forming tissue, organs, organ systems. Organ systems become individuals, populations, then communities. Next, it becomes the ecosystem, and finally the biomes.
A simple form of life, can be explained as follows.
Cells → tissue → organ → organ system → individual → population → community → ecosystem → biome
Furthermore, the object of study in biological science can be divided into ten levels. These levels can be explained as follows.
- Molecular level object. Molecules studied in the field of biological science, namely nucleic acids, lipids or known as fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
- Cell level object. Cells are a structural and functional unit of living things.
- Network level object. Tissue is formed from a collection of several cells. Where these cells have the same function and shape. For example: tissue in animals, such as epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and others. Then, tissue in plants, such as spongy tissue, transport tissue, and parenchymal tissue.
- Organ level object. Organs are formed from tissues that have certain functions. For example, leaves, stems, and roots that exist in plants. Then, the liver, heart and kidney are in animals.
- Organ system level objects. Organ systems consist of organs that work together. In addition, interacting synergistically with each other. For example, the circulatory system , the motion system, the digestive system, and the respiratory system.
- Individual level objects. Collection of organ systems – organ systems that have certain functions will form an individual. For example, plants, animals and humans.
- Population level object. Population is defined as a collection of similar individuals who occupy a certain area and within a certain period. For example, a thicket of pine trees and a group of sparrows.
- Community level object. Community is a collection of populations – populations or populations that occupy a certain area. For example, in a garden, there are ant populations, mango tree populations, and pigeon populations.
- Ecosystem level objects. Ecosystem is defined as a union between a community and the environment in which it lives. Then, there is a reciprocal relationship. For example, coastal ecosystems, lake ecosystems, and forest ecosystems.
- Biome level object. Biome is defined as a collection of various ecosystems that form a unified global or global ecosystem or called global.
Biology as a science also has several benefits in life. As for some of the roles and uses of biology and branches of science for life, can be explained as follows.
- Crossbreeding that occurs in plants can produce fruit in large quantities. This is related to botany.
- Discovering several vaccines that can be used to increase immunity against diseases. This is related to immunology.
- Use of microorganisms for industry in food. This is related to biotechnology. For example, making tape from sticky rice or cassava by Saccharomyces cereviceae. Then, making tempeh from soybeans by the bacterium Rhizopus sp.
In biology, it also provides a description of the theory of the origin of life. There are three types of theories of the origin of life, namely abiogenesis theory, biogenesis theory, and neoabiogenesis theory. The explanation of each theory is as follows.
Abiogenesis theory . Abiogenesis theory is a theory that explains that living things come from inanimate objects in which their creation can occur spontaneously. The originator of the theory of abiogenesis is Aristotle . Aristotle states that “Maggots come from rotten flesh”.
The theory of abiogenesis is also supported by other scientists. The scientists who support the theory of abiogenesis are as follows: (a) Antonie van Leuwenhook and (b) John Needham, who stated that “Bacteria come from broth water”.
Biogenesis theory . The theory of biogenesis is a theory which states that living things that exist today come from living things that existed in earlier periods. The originator of the theory of biogenesis is Louis Pasteur .
Louis Pasteur’s theory states that omne vivum ex ovo omne ovum ex vivo . This means that life comes from eggs, and eggs come from living things. Louis Pasteur’s theory is also supported by other scientists.
Scientists who support the theory of biogenesis are as follows: (a) Lazzaro Spalani, where he conducted experiments using broth water, and (b) Francisco Redy, where Redy conducted experiments using meat media.
This biogenesis theory succeeded in subverting the previous theory. Precisely, the theory of abiogenesis. This was done by conducting experiments on “Broth Water and Goose Neck Tubes”. What Louis Pasteur did.
Theory of neoabiogenesis . The theory of neoabiogenesis explains that life first came from organic compounds. This theory was born by two scientists. These scientists are Harold Urey and Oparin .
Harold Urey stated that the Theory of Chemical Evolution. Harold Urey’s theory states that life was first thought to have occurred in the atmosphere. This statement was supported by Stanley Miller by conducting his experiments.
Oparin stated a theory that was named the Theory of Evolutionary Biology. Oparin’s theory states that life was first thought to have taken place in the ocean. This theory is supported by Haldane in his book entitled The Origin of Life.
The scope of biological science also provides an account of evolution. These theories of evolution, namely Lamarck’s theory in 1809, Weissman’s theory, and Charles Darwin’s theory or Darwin’s theory of Evolution, from 1809 to 1882.
Lamarck’s theory of evolution suggests that phenotypic traits or traits that can be seen, including facial shape, skin color, and others can be obtained from the environment. In addition, it is also genetically inherited.
An example from Lamarck’s theory is that Giraffe has a long neck. This is due to the giraffe continuously extending upward to reach for food.
Weissman’s Theory of Evolution . Weissman’s theory suggests that changes in body organs caused by confusion do not affect their offspring. An example from Weissman’s theory is that mice do not have tails. This is due to the fact that the tail was cut off, it cannot be inherited from the offspring
Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution . Darwin’s theory suggests that evolution occurs due to the process of natural selection. Darwin’s theory through natural selection includes three things as follows
- Natural selection can occur due to the success of organism reproduction.
- Natural selection is formed from interactions that occur between the environment and the variations possessed by organisms.
- The product of natural selection is an adaptation of an organism to its environment.
To understand more about the theory of evolution will be explained in another article, which gives a special exposure to the theory of evolution. This was done to provide further explanation and description to the portal friends of knowledge about the theory of evolution.
Thus the presentation of the scope of biology. As biological science studies about humans, animals and microorganisms. This field of biology studies has a variety of branches in accordance with their respective fields – each.
Biology also provides an explanation of the origin of life through a theory that consists of three theories. Furthermore, the scope of biology also provides an explanation of the theory of evolution.
This article is expected to be able to help friends of the science portal to understand in advance about the field of biological studies. Before entering further about biological material which will be explained next, namely about the theory of evolution. Happy learning and success is always a friend of the portal of knowledge.