This time,we will provide an explanation of plant organs. Plant organs are divided into roots, stems and leaves. Each can be explained as follows.
The root is a plant organ which has the function of absorbing minerals and water in the soil. This water and mineral is used by plants to grow. The root outer structure consists of the root cap, root hairs, and the root surface area.
A root hood or so-called caliptra forms a layer that is used to wrap the roots. The hood is useful for protecting the root meristem area. The root meristem area is the growth area behind it. Furthermore, the root hood also has a function to reduce friction between roots and grains of soil.
This root epidermis has a characteristic that is the formation of root hairs. Where the root hair is an extension of the surface of the root epidermis. The expansion of the surface serves to optimize the process of water absorption.
Usually, root hair does not have cuticles. This is caused to facilitate the movement of water and minerals from the soil into the vessels. Furthermore, water and mineral absorption is most important in root hairs.
The cortex is behind the epidermal tissue. This cortex consists of several layers of cells formed from several tissues. These networks include networks kolenkim, sklerenkim, and parenchyma. The cell walls in this cortex are thin and there is a lot of space used for gas exchange.
Endodermis is a layer that limits the cortex and the central cylindrical part that consists of a row of cells arranged tightly. Where these cells have thickening of lignin and suberin. This causes not easily penetrated by water. This thickening of lignin and suberin forms a band called the Kaspari band.
The central cylinder, where water enters this cylinder through the cytoplasm of endodermic cells. This causes the movement of water and minerals to be easily regulated. Behind this endodermic layer is a layer of cells called periscells.
In dicotyledonous roots, periscells have a role for the formation of root branches. On the inside after this periskel there is an arrangement of a network of vessels consisting of xylem and phloem. Xylem and phloem in dicotyledonous plants are arranged radially.
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Stem is a network contained in primary stems that just came from primary meristem cell activity. The outer layer of skin tissue known as the epidermis develops on the surface of the stem.
This epidermis produces a waxy coating called the cuticle. The epidermis and cuticle function to protect tantan from damage caused by insects and disease. Then, in that epidermis there is a cortex of rods where most are composed of basic tissue known as parenchymal tissue.
This cell functions to store flour in plastids which can be used as supplies of organic food. The stem also contains kolenkim tissue which is composed of flexible kolenkim cells.
Furthermore, the sclerenkim network is composed of rigid fibers and sclereid. Meanwhile, water and food obtained by plants spurred in the development of tissue in the young shoot center.
Furthermore, the developing tissue is known as vascular or transport tissue. This network is composed of several types of specialized cells and tissues. This transport network includes xylem which is useful for supplying water and minerals. Meanwhile, this phloem serves to supply organic food. This is very important for cell division in the bud meristem and the growth and development of stem organs.
The leaves are divided into sections. Part of the leaf is the base of the leaf, petiole, and leaf blade. Leaves are composed of three types of tissue namely mesophyll tissue, epidermal tissue, and vascular tissue.
The tissue found on the top and bottom of the leaves of plants develops in different ways. For example, some leaf epidermis that show pores are called stomata compared to leaf surfaces exposed to sunlight.
Furthermore, there is a palisade parenchymal tissue composed of dense and elongated parenchyma cells. These cells are useful for absorbing sunlight efficiently. Sponge parenchyma tissue contains cells that are separated from the air cavity.
This air cavity is near the stomata, helping in the absorption of CO² and O² released by leaves. Together, these two parenchyma are known as leaf mesophils. Collecting tissue appears at the junction of the palisade paremkim and spongy parenchyma.
During the leaf development process, the transport network that is in the leaves binds to the two tissues. This process can allow water and minerals to reach all parts of the leaf, help in the process of photosynthesis and also help in channeling the results of photosynthesis to other parts or organs.
Young leaves produced next to the apical meristem as a bulge are called primordia leaves. During the leaf development process, the bulge becomes flat or straight and widens.
The above is related to the process of photosynthesis. Where in the process of photosynthesis, the leaves become wider then it will increase the capacity of the leaf to receive light. However, there are also leaves that are slim and thin due to adapt so that it can maintain water expenditure when the weather and climate is long