Database types | Classification by content and model

We live in an increasingly digital world . We constantly interact with programs, applications, technological tools and it is almost mandatory to know at least the way in which they make life easier for us. That is what we want by concentrating in these lines a few glances on the types of databases .

The databases are often an important point in any technological service since they depend many factors that our companies need to work as it is information.

Table of Contents

What is a database?

database ( BBDD ) is a set of data that have a similar origin and that are systematically written down for further processing. The processing of this data will depend on the objectives that we or our company have.

If we want to make a simple comparison of what a database is in the 1.0 world, we have to almost necessarily go to a library. In it, documents on various topics are stored and registered, with some common points in an orderly manner to be consulted later.

All databases do almost the same thing. They order and classify the data and then it will be ready for us to investigate and analyze. The process of the library mentioned above, functions as the indexing we have every day in search engines on the Internet , this is supported by different types of databases.

There are special software to work with databases , we know them as Database Management Systems (DBMS). We will find different softwares for each one of the specific database types.

These programs allow you to quickly store and access the structured data that is housed within the Database. These DBMS have their own characteristics that depend on the type of DB to be used.

Classification of the most common types of databases

There are a large number of databases that are currently implemented. These are classified according to their structure, context, utility and the needs they seek to solve.

If you consult Google you will find millions of articles dedicated to explaining the differences between the main databases. Comparative analyzes between relational and non-relational models . We will also cover them, but we want you to know from scratch what the databases are about .

According to the variability of the database

The first classification that we will address depends on the way in which the data is structured within the database . They could not be other than static and dynamic databases .

Static databases

They are databases specially designed for reading your data. Its implementation in most cases is to store and record historical data and develop studies to understand its behavior over time.

This is especially useful for companies that want to make statistical projections and guide decision-making processes from the business environment.

Dynamic Database

In contrast to static databases , the data in these databases is modifiable over time, allowing constant functions of updating , editing and deleting the data.

An example to understand how we use these databases in our lives can be store inventories. Products, codes and prices are entered. These change when the products run out and / or include new products in the inventory.

According to the content

We continue to navigate the ocean depths of existing data and database types .

Now we enter a slightly deeper phase, since these databases respond to the prioritization of the content to be analyzed. Among those that make up this type of database, the following stand out:

Bibliographic databases

The bibliographic databases  have will be quite familiar. We met them early in school and they accompany us to the university. They are a record that helps us  classify  various data fields.

A simple database on this model can include the following fields: author , publication date , publisher , title , etc.

These fields can be consulted separately or together. But it is important to highlight that in this type of database we will not get all the information contained in the document.

Full text databases

The database is a full – text databases very functional that we can search for specific terms, keywords and all options for a BBDD bibliographic data , with the difference that in this BBDD can consult the full text is archived.

These databases are especially useful for meeting academic and scientific research objectives.


They are databases that we deal with on a daily basis. Even if you look at your mobile, you have a database of this type that you have built and that surely you have a backup in the cloud.

They are commonly used for business purposes. They contain basic elements that allow us to order and organize information such as:

  • Names and addresses
  • Telephone contact and email addresses
  • Billing data, postal codes, among others.

According to the database models

All right, we’ve come this far and it’s time to start going out to sea. We will begin to discover the database classifications that are characterized by the different data management models .

Some of these types of databases are structured because of the way they store their data ( descriptions ), others depend on the storage and retrieval methods of those descriptions.

The magnificent thing about this is that, being fully digital, they allow the implementation of efficient algorithm-based databases .

Hierarchical databases

Hierarchical databases are, as its name highlights, a database in which information is stored in a hierarchical structure   or in an order of importance. In this model, the data is organized in a figure that reminds us of a tree turned upside down.

The hierarchical structure that we achieve in trees is built with segments that we know as nodes and branches .

The segments or nodes to build the tree can be of three forms or categories:

  • Father: it is a node from which descendants are detached. All parents are placed on the same level and have the same importance value.
  • Son: it is a node that depends on the parent node. It can be said that it is a derivation of the previous one.
  • Root: is the source of the data, since it does not have a parent node. It is located on the top level of the tree. From it all the nodes come off.

Advantages of the data structure:

Among the advantages that the implementation of this type of database gives us, we can highlight the globalization of information , the ability to share information among users of the database, the integrity of the information, since its structure guarantees that only the correct information will be stored. and data independence.

Disadvantages of the data structure:

The weak points of this model focus on its rigidity . Once the database is designed, it is complex to modify it.

It is also important to note that it is not easy to build this type of database. It requires a great knowledge of the information units that are going to nourish it and it is necessary to delimit in a very detailed way the relationships that these will have among themselves.

 Network Database

Network data databases are very similar to hierarchical databases ; its main difference in the composition of the node . In this model, nodes can have different parents.

At the time it represented a great advance with respect to the hierarchical model since its variation in the nodes offered a solution to the problems of data redundancy.

Currently, this type of database is not used frequently since the difficulty of modifying and adapting it increases the degree of complexity of its structure, making it very unattractive to programmers and end users.

Transactional databases

These databases fulfill a very specific function. They are in charge of sending and receiving data at high speed. The transactional databases are actually rare for computer users who are not related to the industrial and complex production lines.

A specific case in which we may have some contact with a transactional database is in a banking system that registers money exchange operations between accounts.

The money due data is issued from an account, and the load data of the amount received must be generated immediately in the destination account.

Relational databases

We are now on more familiar and slightly more current terrain. Relational databases have long monopolized the terrain of databases. The core of this BBDD model is the use of the “relationships” between data.

The predominant language in these databases is the Structured Query Language known to all of you as SQL.

Its operation is to enter all the data in registers, which are later organized in tables.

By organizing the data, the existing relationships between data can be easily established and quickly crossed to issue the necessary reports and analyzes.

These databases are recommended when the data that we use have a margin of error null and require constant changes.

It is based on entering the data in registers, which are organized in tables. These databases allow the elements to be related to each other in a very simple way and to cross them quickly, establishing relationships between records in an intuitive way.

Multidimensional databases

These databases are designed for specific functions. There is no major difference between multidimensional databases and relational databases . The point that separates them is appreciable only on a conceptual level. Since in these, the fields or attributes of a table can be of two types.

They can represent dimensions within a data table or they can directly represent the metrics that are intended to be obtained.

Object Oriented Database

It is impossible not to get excited when talking about databases that we use every day. The object-oriented bases are among the most modern we have. In addition, its great capacity and power should not be neglected. In these, detailed information about the object is not stored, the object is completely stored.

The object is endowed with a set of characteristics to distinguish it from objects that may be similar. The advantages of this model are obvious compared to those previously described. They admit more content and allow the user to have more first-hand information.

Documentary databases

The document databases are an interesting model information sets that use documents as the storage structure and data query.

These documents are made up of multiple records and data. They are built with NoSQL language which gives you a great number of technical and flexibility advantages.

This database model allows the handling of heavy volumes of information in minimum periods of time. Its diversity of functions and modules adaptable to multiple consultation mechanisms have made it one of the preferred working models for programmers today.

Deductive databases

deductive database is a database that allows the possibility of making deductions through an inference. Its functionality depends on the conditions and facts that are stored in the database. They are also known as logical databases since their principles are based on mathematical logic.

They are born in response to the limitations that arise in relational databases when executing recursive queries and theorizing about the indirect relationships that could be generated between stored data.

This database uses a language called datalog that allows the computer to solve deductions to answer queries.

Among the main advantages offered by deductive databases we have:

  • Use of logical rules to solve queries.
  • Has layered denials
  • Ability to obtain new information through that already stored in the database by inference.
  • Use of algorithms that optimize queries.
  • Supports complex objects and sets.

We hope that with the information provided here you will satisfy part of the thirst for knowledge about databases .

We invite you to continue consulting our blog to learn more about all types of Databases


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