Cutting inserts , are tools precision, also known as indexable inserts are made of materials carbide (of tungsten , of titanium , of tantalum , of niobium ) or Metal hard.
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- 1 Attachment of cutting inserts
- 2 Classification of cutting inserts
- 3 How to choose cutting inserts
- 4 Shape of cutting insert
- 5 According to the type of cutting insert
- 6 Sources
Attachment of cutting inserts
The use of the cutting insert in the machine tool begins with its fixing in the tool holder with various clamping mechanisms, mechanical fixing is the preferred and traditional way to ensure a cutting insert since the insert has several tips cut, so when one of them is worn out, another is indexed (it rotates in its support to have another cutting tip).
Cutting insert classification
The parameters for the classification of cutting inserts can be made depending on their shape or the shape of the material.
- Shape: The inserts are obtained in a variety of shapes, such as square, rhombus, triangle and round, the resistance of the edge depends on the geometry of the tool , the smaller the angle, the resistance of the edge will be less.
- Material: Carbides are regulated by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) classification of hard metals, helping in the selection of the correct insert for the required machining process.
- Blue area, P code: For machining long chip materials such as steels, cast steels, stainless steels and long chip malleable cast iron.
- Yellow area, M code: For machining more difficult materials such as stainless steels, cast steel , heat-resistant materials, manganese steels, cast iron alloys, titanium alloys .
- Red area, code K: For the machining of short chip materials such as cast iron, hardened steels, and non-ferrous materials such as bronze , aluminum , plastics , wood , etc. Each area is divided into fields of application or basic qualities that are numbers that go from 01 to 50 for the blue area, and from 01 to 40 for the yellow and red areas.
How to choose cutting inserts
The choice of a cutting insert must obey the need of each job; therefore, when choosing one, the following should be taken into account:
Cutting insert shape
Among the shapes that stand out in the market, we have inserts with the shape of rhombus, triangle, square and round. It must be taken into account that the edge resistance of an insert will depend on its shape, so the greater the included angle, the greater the edge resistance.
- Break chip. They serve to control the chip flow during the cutting process, eliminating the excess of long chips at the time of cutting, providing greater comfort and precision.
- Cutting speed. The selection of the speed will depend on the material to be cut, therefore the shape of the cutting insert must be chosen appropriately, to apply a certain speed.
According to the type of cutting insert
- Normal insert. This type of insert performs work with greater comfort, but suffers greater wear with stainless steel.
- I insert Wiper. This type of insert – at the time it performs work on a machine – undergoes greater wear at a speed of 2000rpm.
It should be remembered that the cutting inserts have several tips, that when one of them is worn, the other is automatically indexed; In other words, there is feedback between the tips, which is why many turners use inserts with a greater number of tips to carry out more precise work in less time. Finally, it should be noted that the tool holder is adequate and that it contains various clamping mechanisms for correct work.