Coffee production in Cuba

Coffee production in Cuba . Cuba has a rich history of coffee cultivation, becoming one of the main export products today and one of the most internationally recognized. The first coffee trees arrived on the island in 1748 from the hands of a Havana merchant, José Antonio Gelabert , who began cultivation near Havana [1] . Other historians, mainly of Hispanic origin, place the arrival of this grain in Cuba in 1769 from San Juan de Puerto Rico [2] . The truth is that at the end of the 18th centuryA great explosion took place in the cultivation of coffee in Cuban lands to make it one of the main commercial products of the Island and a brand of excellence recognized worldwide and which today is called Pure Cuban Coffee .


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  • 1 History
    • 1 Cologne
  • 2 Climatic Conditions
  • 3 References



The coffee came to the Caribbean from Paris , with the island of Martinique the first to possess for the year 1727 . The English began cultivating it in Jamaica in 1728 , and it was not until the mid- eighteenth century that it began to spread to other Carribean islands, reaching Cuba in 1769 from San Juan de Puerto Rico . Although other sources locate the arrival of the first coffee trees on the Island in 1748 by the hands of Havana merchant José Antonio Gelabertwho brought it from the island of Santo Domingo (currently the Dominican Republic ), who started cultivation near Havana .

The cultivation of this product in Cuba took place in partial sowings in the farms of the rich landowners who were interested in diversifying their productions, which made it not until 1790 that any farm that owned this crop could be called a coffee plantation. . It was from this year that, with the arrival of emigrants from the island of Santo Domingo, coffee production began to be given priority in some farms over sugarcane production, mainly in the eastern region of Cuba.

Despite the boom that this type of cultivation took in the Cuban East due to its proximity to the island where most of the emigrants who colonized it came from, the creation of coffee plantations spread throughout the island until the western region was the one that most Coffee plantations owned, counting 80 in the year 1800 , this fact was given by the powerful flow that the landowners of this region possessed and the high population that they had in comparison with other regions.

The export by Havana of this product in 1804 was only 50,000 arrobas, in 1809 it rose to 320,000, from 1815 to 1820 the annual average was 727,448, the production of 1826 was 1,221,609 and that of 1827 1,433,487 at.

Weather conditions

Coffee is only produced in the strip located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The countries closest to the executive line need higher altitudes above sea level to produce high-quality coffees, while a position further away from this line conditions that lower altitudes can obtain very high-quality coffees.

Hence, the geographical location of the Island of Cuba, farthest from Ecuador and with an average temperature ranging between 23 and 28 degrees Celsius, makes it possible to obtain grains of exceptional quality at an altitude between 350 and 750 m, that are valued among the best washed arabicas in the world.

The coffee plantations grow in the shade of ancient trees, in permeable soils, with high contents of organic matter and clay that allow the water to be easily absorbed.

The most relevant mountainous areas of the island topography have places with very particular climatological characteristics that make them the main coffee regions of Cuba.


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