10 Butterfly Facts You Must Know

 Butterfly Facts You Must Know.This year I was lucky enough to meet this beautiful butterfly – a bear! I spotted it and froze in place, then I remembered the camera and quickly took a photo.What subspecies I can hardly determine, I am inclined to say that the bear is rural (rural) although it may be Madame Bear .Bears are moths, they are active at night, they often fly in the light of lanterns, and during the day they are inactive and hide in the shade.

The butterfly is so named because its caterpillars are covered with dense clusters of long hairs, which make them look dull, like small cubs. The bright color of the wings suggests that the butterfly is poisonous. The caterpillars are also poisonous to her.

The wingspan can reach 45-55 mm. Forewings black with white, sometimes yellow spots. Hind wings red or orange-yellow. The body of the butterfly is thick, fur, covered with hairs. The belly is red. Antennas are a comb. The paws are short, covered with hairs. Butterfly proboscis is underdeveloped, so it does not feed during its life. The purpose of a bear’s life is to mate and give birth. The caterpillars are black with brown hairs, hairy and very mustache.
Butterfly summer time is June-July. During the season, the bear gives only one generation. A caterpillar-shaped winter bear. Pupation occurs in the spring.

The dwarf butterfly feeds on plantation leaves, dandelions, strawberries, nettles and some poisonous plants (whose venom accumulates in the body of the caterpillar). It can be enjoyed with apples, raspberries or pears, but it does not cause significant damage to cultivated crops.

It lives in humid, lowland, parks, gardens, plains, meadows, river floods. I met for the first time on my page.
Many butterfly butterflies are rare and are listed in the Red Book of Russia and other countries.
Some butterfly species are harmful pests, such as the American white butterfly. It harms about 230 plant species. I hope we never meet her.
I don’t think I was the only one interested in such beauty.
See you soon!

It belongs to the bear family Arctiidae, which numbers 6000 species worldwide. There are about 90 species in Russia. One group of bears is called lichens, they are thinner, faded and not hairy. The second group – real garbage – butterflies with a thick spotted belly and combed antennae. Butterflies are often colored very differently – in black, yellow, red, white. Most bears are a species of twilight night, there are several species that are active during the day.

There is an opinion that the thick “fur” of caterpillars helps them to warm up on cold nights. In any case, the butterflies were called “bears” because of this thick hairline of their caterpillars. Bear warthogs feed on a wide range of host plants, but especially love a variety of plants.

There are pests among bears – for example, the American white butterfly Hyphantria cunea. Young caterpillars of the American white butterfly build a spider’s nest and live together in it. In the afternoon, the caterpillars leave the nest and eat the leaves, and in the evening they return to it and spend the night all together. When they mature, the caterpillars leave their “native nest” and live alone, and then hatch.

Goat caterpillars of Spilarctia imperialis also live in colonies, building a common spider nest. This helps protect against many non-specific predators – not every insect will climb into a dense web. But the terrestrial beetle Parena perforata lives exactly in these nests. More precisely, its larvae live in a nest that feeds quite a bit without leaving the nest of these caterpillars. The only thing that limits the larva is the size of the caterpillar: the small larvae of ground beetles cannot cope with a strong caterpillar and are forced to control small caterpillars.

Ursa Kaya is one of the most common among us, spread from the European part of Russia to Siberia and the Far East. This relatively large butterfly reaches a wingspan of 80 mm. Butterflies are found in July and August, their wings are differently colored, but most often brown, with a yellow-white pattern – a good example of color dissection. The hind wings and belly are brick red with shiny black spots. The alarmed bear immediately opens its “camouflage” on the front wings, showing black or blue eye spots on the red hind wings and immediately expels the toxin from the glands located in the abdomen, affected by the red edge. Caterpillars, like most bears, feed on grasses, and also bears, mountain ash, willow can eat raspberries and apples.

Many butterflies (including eggs) are known to hear well. Between the chest and abdomen, bear moths have a tympanic organ that hears ultrasound in the range of 3-100 kHz. Thanks to this organ, the butterfly hears the ultrasonic cry of a bat that accompanies it. He then performs an anti-ship maneuver, falls by turning, sits and waits until the danger passes.

Bears are known as the “talkative” family of butterflies. Indeed, many of them make different sounds. At the same time, some bears have a perfect sound apparatus (like a cicada): the timbal plates, abruptly returning to their places after the muscles change curvature, create a loud sound. The bear butterfly determines the location of the bat, it can communicate with other individuals of its species. Some bears can emit sound with the help of special “castanets”, which are thick chitinous plates on the edges of the hind wings. When the wings are reduced, the plates hit each other and click. Moreover, the camera under the combined wings serves as a resonator, amplifying the sound.

Some bears were not satisfied with passive sound protection (avoiding encounters with bats), but they also went on the offensive: Cycnia tenera emits strong ultrasonic clicks (“clicks”) that prevent bats from finding them. Other bears are inedible to bats. And to reduce the number of mutually unpleasant conflicts, the diver, in response to the bat’s “hunting howl”, emits identification ultrasound signals that allow them to distinguish themselves from other edible butterflies – something like “I’m completely inedible and you know it.” This signal is “read” by the stick as a sign of inedibility of the object.

It is less well known that butterfly caterpillars are also heard, and this suits them. Many wasps, like ammophiles, prey on butterfly caterpillars to feed their larvae. So, they follow the smell of caterpillars – they “sniff” the caterpillar along the path in the grassy forest. The caterpillar hears a wasp: it notices its buzzing and hiding – it freezes or falls from the grass. True, she is able to hear a maximum of ten centimeters, but sometimes it also saves the life of the caterpillar – but how come the winged hunter has not yet seen the body of the fat caterpillar still wandering between the stems?

Most species of this family are unusually colorful and beautifully colored. There is almost no halftone – the combination of black, white, yellow, red spots and stripes gives these butterflies a unique look. Butterflies are usually medium in size or large. They are nocturnal, although some species are active during the day. In most species, the caterpillars are covered with thick fur-like hairs, which may explain the name of the family. The caterpillars feed on almost all types of herbaceous plants. Pupation often in a loose cocoon. Three species of Crimean bears are listed in the Red Book of the USSR (1984). One species, the American white butterfly, is a dangerous pest.

BEAR STRIPED

Spiris striata L.

Beaver (1793), Melioranski (1897), Efetov, Budashkin (1987).

Wing span 32 – 38 mm. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced: males are colored lighter, the wing pattern is clearer. The proboscis is poorly developed.
   The range covers Europe, Asia Minor. In the USSR it is distributed in the European part, Kazakhstan, Southern Siberia, Yakutia.
   It is found everywhere in the Crimea, with the exception of the eastern part of the South Coast. Usually at the foot of a forest steppe.
   It gives two generations: I – May – June, II – August – September.
   The caterpillar feeds on plantain, wormwood, and other herbaceous plants; winters.

MEDELJ IS A GRID

Coscinia cribraria L. Bober (1793).

Wing span 38 – 43 mm.
   It is located in Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa. In the USSR – in the European part, in the Caucasus, in Siberia, in the Far East.
   Crimea is mentioned only in the work Beber (Bober, 1793) from the Belogorsk region (“Karas Basar”).
   In the European part of the USSR, butterflies fly in June-July.
   The caterpillar lives on plantain, grains, and other herbaceous plants; winters.

BEAR POINT

Utetheisa pulchella L.

Grumm Grzhimailo (1882), Melioransky (1897), Djakonov (1958), Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Kryukova et al. (1988).

Translated from Latin, the specific name of the intermittent bear means “beautiful”.
   In the wingspan of 32 – 45 mm. Proboscis is developed.
   The species is cosmopolitan, distributed in tropical and temperate zones of both hemispheres. In the USSR – in the south of the European part, the Caucasus, in Central Asia, in the south of Kazakhstan.
   Finds from Evpatoria, Sevastopol, Simferopol, Feodosia, Kerch, Miskhor, Gurzuf are known in Crimea. However, they all belong to the end of the 19th – the first half of the 20th century. The most recent date is 1939 (Kryukova et al., 1988).
   It gives three generations a year: I – May, II – July – August, III – September – October.
Caterpillar feeds on ban, bruise, heliotrope, plantation and other herbaceous plants; winters.
   It is listed in the Red Book of the USSR (1984).

BEAR KAYA

Arctia caja L.

“List of harmful insects …” (1932), Ermine (1970), Efetov, Budashkin (1987).

Wing span 47 – 80 mm. The proboscis is poorly developed. The color of butterflies can vary greatly.
   Distributed from Western Europe in Japan and North America (ambient temperature range). It is found almost everywhere in the USSR (except the far north). It is an interesting fact that this widespread and almost everywhere common species in the Crimea is quite rare. Three specimens of this species from the Crimea are kept in the collection of the Zoological Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Leningrad. Butterflies were caught in the area of ​​the Angar Pass and on Mount Agarmysh (dates unknown). The above materials probably served as a real basis for mentioning the species for the Crimea (“List of harmful insects of the USSR and neighboring countries”, 1932; Gornostaev, 1970). In 1988, V. Sinyaev collected 12 specimens of the Kaya bear in the Crimea: “Ai-Petrinskaya Yayla, At-Bash into the world of 10 males, 1 female on August 13, 2008.” I “Simeiza district, Mount Koshka, female 08/17/08.”
   Butterfly flight in the European part of the USSR in June-August.
   The caterpillar feeds on many herbaceous plants, and is also found on raspberries, apples, pears and plums. In winter, caterpillars.

RURALA BEZA

Arctia villica L.

Grumm Grzhimailo (1882), Melioransky (1897), Lebedev (1913), “List of Harmful Insects …” (1932), Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Budashkin (1987).

Wing span 50 – 60 mm. The proboscis is weak.
   It is widespread in southern and central Europe, Asia Minor, and North Africa. In the USSR – in the European part, in the Caucasus, in Kazakhstan, in southwestern Siberia.
   It is everywhere in Crimea, with a mass appearance. In the Kara-Radag reserve, the number of 108 samples per trap of light per night was recorded.
   In a year, it is given to one generation in April-July.
   The caterpillar feeds on plantain, dandelion, strawberry, clover, wild strawberry and other herbaceous plants. It can damage the leaves of apple, pear and raspberry trees, but it does not cause significant damage. In winter, caterpillars.

HEBB HEED

Ammobiota Festival Hfn. (= hebe L.)

“List of harmful insects …” (1932), Ermine (1970), Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Budashkin (1987)

In ancient Greek mythology, Hebe is the daughter of Zeus and Hera, the goddess of youth, the heavenly wife of Hercules.
   Butterfly 45 – 57 mm in wing span. The proboscis is not developed.
Widespread in Central and Southern Europe. In the USSR – in the south of the European part, the Caucasus, in Central Asia, Kazakhstan, southern Siberia.
   It is found everywhere in the Crimea, except in mountain forests. The view is not uncommon.
   It flies in April – May. There are isolated findings in July and August.
   The caterpillar feeds on dandelion, strawberry, milkweed, and other herbaceous plants; winters.

BLOOD MEDEL

Ocnogyna parasite Hb.

Budashkin, Efetov (1986),

Males have a wingspan of 32 – 36 mm, females have shortened wings – 22 – 24 mm. The proboscis is not developed.
   It is widespread in southern Europe, Asia Minor. In the USSR – in Moldova, Crimea and the Caucasus.
   In Crimea, there are finds from Simferopol, Sevastopol, Sudak, Karadag reserve. According to observations in the Karadag Reserve, the number of species is constantly large and reaches several dozen specimens per trap of light per night.
   In a year, it gives one generation in February – April (it is one of the earliest butterflies on the peninsula).
   The caterpillar feeds on cereals, nettles, scabies, poultry, Crimean foam and other herbaceous plants. Pupa winter in a fairly dense cocoon.

BEAR MEADOW

Diacrisia sannio L. (= russula L.)

Melioranski (1897), Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Budashkin (1987).

“Sannio” translated from Latin means “clown”, “buun”, “clown”. The butterfly, by all accounts, owes its name to its colorful coloration.
   The foundry bear has sexual dimorphism. Males differ in larger dimensions (wing span 40–48 mm, while in females they are 32–42 mm) and lighter wing color.
   Widespread in Europe. In the USSR – in the European part, in the Caucasus, in Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Siberia.
   In Crimea, the species is common in mountain forests, at the foot of forest steppes, on eggs. Very rare in the eastern part of the South Coast.
   The year gives two generations: I – May – June, II – July – September.
   The caterpillar lives on nettles, thistles, dandelions, plantations and other herbaceous plants; winters.

BEAR PURPLE

Rhyparia purpurata L.

Wing span 39 – 45 mm.
   It is widespread in Western Europe, Asia Minor, Korea and Japan. It is located in the USSR in the European part, in the Caucasus, in Siberia, in the Far East.
   One male of this species was found in the Crimea: “Ai-Petri Mountain, born on July 27, 1989, V. Kornilov, Yu. Budashkin.”
   In the European part of the USSR, the butterfly flies in June-July.
The caterpillar eats on the bed, wormwood, plantation, berries and other herbs, less often on willow, oak, birch, apple, can eat the kidneys of grapes. In winter, caterpillars.

AMERICAN WHITE LITTLE

Hyphantria cunea drury

Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Budashkin (1987), “Pests of agricultural crops …” (1988).

Wing span 20 – 40 mm. The proboscis is reduced. There are two forms of butterflies – with pure white wings and with white wings in more or less numerous black spots.
   The home country of this species is North America, from where it was accidentally shipped with the goods to Europe. On August 5, 1940, a butterfly was found near Budapest. From this moment, an uninterrupted procession of this pest on the European continent began. In the USSR, the first American white butterfly was recorded in 1952 in the Precarpathian region. Then it spread to Moldova, Odessa, Kherson, Nikolaev, Zaporozhye.
   Crimea was first discovered in 1969. Currently, a mass species is present everywhere on the peninsula (not only on Jail).
   The year gives two generations: I – May – June, II – July – August.
   One female can lay up to 2000 eggs. Young caterpillars live in colonies, forming large spider nests. Up to 200 species of trees and shrubs were damaged, including apple, pear, plum, cherry, cherry, quince, mulberry, walnut, maple, linden, oak, ash and many other hardwoods. It is a dangerous pest of agriculture and forestry. Pupa overwinter.

LITTLE YELLOW

Spilarctia lutea Hfn. (= lubricipeda auction).

Grumm Grzhimailo (1882), “List of harmful insects …” (1932), Ermine (1970), Efetov, Budashkin (1987).

Wing span 35 – 40 mm. The proboscis is poorly developed.
   The species is widespread in the Palearctic. In the USSR, it is located in the European part, Siberia, in the Far East.
   In Crimea, the yellow bear is common at the foot of forest-steppe, mountain forests, on the South Coast.
   It flies well towards the light at night. The butterfly appears in May-August. The caterpillar feeds on nettles, beds, dandelions and other plants. Winter crisis.

BEAR MINT

Spilosoma lubricipeda L. (= menthastri Esp.)

Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Budashkin (1987).

Wing span 35 – 42 mm. The proboscis is poorly developed.
   Widespread in the Palearctic. It is located in the USSR in the European part, in the Caucasus, in Central Asia, Siberia, and in the Far East.
In Crimea, this species is common in other areas and is extremely rare. We noticed two specimens that arrived in the Golden Field of the Kirov District and one in the Karadag Nature Reserve (July 3 and August 18). In the collection of Simferopol State University, there is one specimen from Simferopol, caught on May 25.
   Biology in Crimea is not known.
   In the south of the European part, the caterpillar feeds on mint, nettle, sorrel and other herbs. Winter crisis.

THE STAR IS A NETWORK

Spilosoma urticae esp.

Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Budashkin (1987).

Wing span 32 – 45 mm. The proboscis is reduced.
   Very similar to the previous view. The differences are as follows: first, as a rule, the black dots of moths on the front wings are more numerous in the shell of mint than in the nettle shell, and second, the antennae of the bear mint are black, while in the nettle shell – white.
   Widespread in Europe. In the USSR – in the European part, in the Caucasus, in Central Asia, Siberia, in the Far East.
   It is found everywhere in the Crimea, except in mountain forests and ditches. A common sight, it is rare on the South Coast. It flies to the light at night.
   The butterfly appears in April, the last specimens can be found in August (probably two generations).
   The caterpillar feeds on nettles, sorrel and other herbaceous plants. Winter crisis.

WHITE HONEY

Diaphora mendica Cl.

Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Budashkin (1987).

Wing span 27 – 35 mm. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced: in males the wings and trunk are brownish-gray, in females white. The proboscis is poorly developed.
   Widespread in Western Europe, Asia Minor. In the USSR – in the European part, in the Caucasus, in western Siberia.
   In Crimea, the species is not rare, it is found everywhere. Butterflies fly well in the light mostly in the evening and morning.
   In a year, it is given to one generation in April-June.
   The caterpillar eats on lettuce, pickles, forget-me-nots, plantations, nettles and other herbs. The pupa overwinters in a sparse cocoon.

BROWN BEAR

Phragmatobia fuliginosa L.

Kozhanchikov, Danilevski, Dyakonov (1955), Gornostaev (1970), Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Budashkin (1987).

Wing span 32 – 38 mm.
   Widespread in the Palearctic. In the USSR, in the European part, in the Caucasus, in Central Asia, in Siberia.
   In Crimea, the species is common, it is found everywhere. Butterflies are active at night, often flying in the light.
   The year gives two generations: I – March – May, II – June-August.
   The caterpillar feeds on grains, acids, forget-me-nots, bedding, lettuce and other herbs. In winter, caterpillars.

BEAR QUIET

Phragmatobia placida Friv.

Kostyuk, Ivy (1987).

Wing span 34 – 38 mm. The proboscis is not developed. It used to be considered a subspecies of brown bear. It has recently stood out on its own.
   It differs from the bear in that it has a brown on the front wing next to the black spot closer to the front edge of the red dot.
   Widespread in Bulgaria, Bosnia, Asia Minor. In the USSR – in the Crimea, in California, in Central Asia.
   Found in the Crimea on Karabi-Yayl (June 9, 1986 I. Yu. Kostyuk collected five men during fishing).
   There is no data on the biology of the species in Crimea.

BEAR PETA

Chelis maculosa Gern.

Butterfly with a wing span of 30 – 35 mm. The proboscis is poorly developed.
   It is located in Central and Southern Europe. In the USSR, the subspecies Chelis maculosa maniheimi Dup. Is known, which differs from the nominative subspecies by a well-defined marginal series of spots on the forewings. It has been observed in the southern European part, the northern Caucasus, the southern Urals, northern Kazakhstan and southern Siberia.
   In Crimea, there are finds from Simferopol, the villages of Dobry, Sevastopol, Nizhny Novgorod, Feodosia, Sudak and the Karadag reserve.
   The species is rare on the peninsula.
   In Crimea, butterflies fly from May to June and from July to September.
   The caterpillar feeds on thighs, other herbaceous plants; winters.

PURE STAR

Watsonarctia dessert Bart. (= Casta Esp.)

Grumm Grzhimailo (1882).

Butterfly in the wingspan of 29 – 33 mm, reduced hoboscis.
   It is widespread in Central and Southern Europe, Asia Minor. In the USSR – in the European part, in the Caucasus, in East Kazakhstan, southern Siberia.
   There is no material from the territory of Crimea. There is only Grumma Grzhimail’s indication of a catch on the southern coast of the peninsula of three caterpillars of this species on ivy. However, he failed to bring out the butterflies. The author himself considered the definition suspicious. New discoveries are needed to prove the species’ habitat in Crimea.
   In the European part of the USSR, the species develops in one generation per year. Butterfly flight in May.
   The caterpillar feeds on thighs and other herbaceous plants. Winter crisis.

Madam Madame

Callimorpha dominula L.

Melioranski (1897), Djakonov (1958), Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Kryukova and others. (1988).

Wing span 45 – 55 mm. The butterfly eats flowers during the day and flies into the light at night.
   Widespread in Europe and Asia Minor. On the territory of the USSR – in the European part, in the Caucasus.
In the Crimea, the species is rare and local. Most of the finds (8 specimens) belong to the territory of the Crimean reserves and hunting economy: Babugan-yayla, northern slopes, Mount Chuchel. V. Melioransky (1897) was discovered on Mount Kastel. The Simferopol State University collection preserves a specimen from the vicinity of the village of Bogatoe. We found a species in the Angarsk crossing area. – “3.8.1985. K. Efetov.”
   In a year, it gives one generation in July-August.
   The caterpillar feeds on nettles, strawberries, forget-me-nots, blackberries, raspberries, willows, poplars; winters.
   It is listed in the Red Book of the USSR (1984). It is protected on the territory of the Crimean reserved hunting estates.

BEAR HERA

Euplagia quadripunctaria poda (= hera L.)

Grumm Grzhimailo (1882), Melioransky (1897), Vuchetich (1917), Kuznetsov (1926), “List of Harmful Insects …” (1932), Kozhanchikov, Danilevssiy, Dyakonov (1955), Dyakonov (1958), Gornostaev (1970) ), “Pests of agricultural crops …” (1974), Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Budashkin (1987), Kryukova et al. (1988), Gusev (1989).

In ancient Greek mythology, Hera is the eldest daughter of Cronus and Rhea, sister and wife of Zeus, queen of the gods, ruler of the forces of nature, protector of marriage and conjugal love.
   Dipper Hera in the wingspan reaches 50 – 55 mm. The butterfly eats flowers during the day and often flies in the light at night.
   Widespread in Europe, Asia Minor, Iran, Syria. In the USSR – in the central and southern regions of the European part, in the Caucasus, in Turkmenistan (Kopetdag).
   In the Crimea, the species is found in all natural zones, ordinary, gravitating to shrubs, light forests, dry forests.
   It is given to one generation per year in June-August.
   The caterpillar feeds on plantain, clover, gorges, nettles, hazelnuts, raspberries, blackberries, as well as oak and beech. In winter, caterpillars.
   It is listed in the Red Book of the USSR (1984). But Crimea has a consistently high population and an irreplaceable range.

BLOOD WITHOUT

Turia jacobaeae L.

Melioranski (1897), Vuchetich (1917), Efetov, Budashkin (1987), Budashkin (1987).

Males wingspan 37 – 39 mm, females 30 – 33 mm. The proboscis is poorly developed.
   Widespread in Europe. In the USSR – in the European part, in the Caucasus, in Central Asia, Kazakhstan, southern Siberia.
   In Crimea, it is located in the steppe, the Piedmont forest-steppe, on the southern coast. Usually.
   It gives one generation per year in April – June. The caterpillar feeds on the poisonous meadow cross (Senecio jacobaea L.). Dolly overwinters in a thin cocoon.

Butterflies are usually bright and colorful, with a thick body, more or less large. Unlike the scapula, the abdomen is often brightly colored, with spots or streaks that stand out against the general background. Small species are generally not brightly colored. In males the antennae are combed, the eyes are naked, the proboscis is short, often reduced. Gus. very obscure (hence the name of the family). Most species of this family feed on plants, plants and geese. lichens – on lichens and leaves. Over 50 species have been found in the European part of the USSR.

1.! BEAR KAIA (Arctia caja L.). 47-80 mm. Years in VI-VIII. The view is very changeable. Range – almost the entire European part, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Siberia. Gus. multiphase, they feed on a variety of plants, plants, as well as some trees and shrubs. Black, with very long black, gray hairs on top. At the end of spring they live in meadows, on many grasses. growth. The pupa is black, in a soft cocoon with braided hairs.

2. MOODED VILLAGE (Epicallia villica L. (Arctia). 50-60 mm. VI-VII years. Common, except sowing. Goose. Lives on plantations, nettles, nodules, strawberries and other plants. Therefore, the variability of the pattern on the wings butterfly distinguishes several of their varieties.It is common in the southern and central regions of the European part, in the Caucasus and Central Asia.Gus.black, with brown hairs and a dark red head.Puppa black, belly rings with red cutouts, white cocoon.

3.! BEAR-HERA (Euplagia quadripunctaria Poda. (Callimorpha hera L.). 50-55 mm. Years at the end of VII-VIII. Area – middle of the railway, south. Flying in the afternoon. Distributed in the southern part, partly in the middle parts of the European part, on Caucasus and Central Asia They love mountainous areas Geese are found on plantations, clover, fireflies, gorges, oaks and beeches Black or gray with yellow or orange dorsal stripe and yellow side stripes, with orange warts bordered with black lutens In variation the wings and belly are not red, but yellow.Butterflies need protection.

4. MAIN MASTER (Pericallia matronula L.). 70-80 mm. Years in VI-VII. It is located in the middle regions and southern Siberia. Gus. lives on bird cherry, nettle, hazel, falcon, plantation, blueberries, dandelion, etc. The color is dark brown.

5. BEAR-HEBA (Ammobiota hebe L. (Arctia). 47 – 53 mm. Years in V-VII. Area – central and southern regions of the USSR, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern Siberia. Not common. Geese. They develop on the uterus), grass, swan, dandelion and other plants, black, with long gray-black and rusty hairs.

6. MOOD LONG (GIRL) (Panaxia dominula L. (Callimorpha). 45-55 mm. Years in VI-VII. In summer in the central, southern and partly northern regions of the Caucasus. yellow, geese are multiphase, living on a variety of plants, plants, nettles, strawberries, raspberries, willows, poplars, etc. They are black-blue, with yellow hairs and spots on the back and sides.

7.! MEDELJSKO LIJEPO (Rhyparia purpurata L.). 42-45 mm. In the summer afternoon, in VI-VII. Gus. polyphagous, develops in wormwood, yarrow, plantation and other plants, less often on willows, bird cherries, raspberries, apples, etc. The butterfly is common in our central, northern, partly southern regions, the Caucasus and southern Siberia. Gus. black, with reddish and yellowish hairs. Butterflies need protection.

8. BEAD MEADOW (Diacrisia sannio L.) – male. Males 40-48 mm, females 35-42 mm. Years in VI-IX. Gus. they develop on nettles, thistles, plantations, dandelions and other plants. growth.

9. BEAD MEADOW – female (smaller than male).

10. BLOOD EARNING (Hypocrita jacobaee L.). 30-39 mm. Years in V-VI. Gus. lives on the godfather. The butterfly is cylindrical, black, found throughout the European part, except for sowing, but with gaps.

11. PEDIENTRIC bear (Parasemia plantaginis L.) – male. 32-37 mm. Years in V-VII. It occurs almost throughout Europe and in Siberia, in the forests. Gus. lives on plantations and other plants. growth. The color is black, red in the middle.

12. HONEY COVER – female.

13. LINE LINE (Eilema pritona L. (Lithosia). 32-35 mm. Years VI-VIII. We are distributed in the middle regions in coniferous forests. Geese. They live on various lichens; blackish, with a black lateral line in white spots.

14. FULL AMERICAN WHITE (Hyphantria cunea Drury.) – male. 25-40 mm. Years in V-VIII. Area – southwest Gus. multiphase, damage up to 200 garden, forest and agricultural plants. Mass reproduction is very harmful. The butterfly was imported from the United States at the beginning of World War II (first discovered in Hungary and in 1952 in Transcarpathia).

15. FULL AMERICAN WHITE – female.

16. WHITE SHOOTED WHITE (Coscinia cribraria L. (Callimorpha cribrum L.) – female. 38-43 mm. Years in VI-VII. Geese are found on heather, cereals and other plants.

17. GREAT WANTED YELLOW (Euprepia striata L. (Callimorpha, Coscinia) – male. 32-35 mm.

18. THE STAR IS WHITE YELLOW (Huphoraia aulica L.). 35-40 mm. Years in V-VI. Gus. they develop on peas, plantations, plants and other plants. growth.

19. WOMEN’S LAMPS (Spilosoma menthastri Esp.). 35-42 mm. Years in V-VI. Gus. live on nettles, buckwheat, mint, sour and other herbs. growth.

20. MARRIED bear (Utetheisa pulchella L.). 32-40 mm. Years in V-IX. Range – cf. railroad, south. Gus. grow on plantations, forget-me-nots and other plants. growth.

21. MOODED MEDEL (Phragmatobia fuliginosa L.). 32-38 mm. Years in V-VIII. Range – cf. railroad, south. Gus. multiphase, living on grasses. growth. Sometimes harm beets and other garden plants.

22. LICENSED FOUR (Lithosia quadra L. (Oeonistis) – female. 44-52 mm. VI. VIII. It is found everywhere except sowing. Geese live on lichens, trunks of oak, beech, pine, chestnut and fruit trees, often on the leaves of these trees.

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