The avant-garde was one of the most relevant artistic movements in history , reaching the present time with the same relevance and that is that the avant-garde never goes out of style, even more when there are still many things to innovate in.

Related topics

Cubism , Futurism ,  Mannerism

What is avant-garde?

Avant-garde is called the set of artistic movements and currents , which could also be literary, which arises from an extremely problematic and chaotic era , also recognized as avant-garde in the French language. Generally, this current begins as society was tired of the trends that were manifesting for the time, so in this way people, works, or some other type of social artistic manifestation that were outside the norm were called , for the time they were not daily and were discriminated as innovative, particular and peculiar ; These called more the attention of citizens if they were referring to theculture , politics, philosophy or literature .

The avant-garde was catapulted greatly since its appearance, since as if it were a utopia it represented everything impossible for the time and although for some it was a simple characteristic that was attached to modernism and postmodernism, many artists aligned themselves with that trend , specifying that this was extremely far from the foundations and foundations of the previous ones.

  • What does it consist of
  • Where it appeared
  • Historic context
  • characteristics
  • objective
  • Expressions and Ismos
  • Literary avant-garde
  • Avant-garde by country
  • Representatives
  • Plays
  • Summary
  • conclusion

What does it consist of

It is defined as that art or expression that is manifested through strange or unusual means, which are not daily for society and, therefore, are out of the norm, being totally innovative in the eyes of viewers, therefore Therefore, it could be said that the avant-garde is everything new that becomes a trend, for the simple fact of being inexperienced in some cases.

Where it appeared

It mainly emerged in Europe .

Historic context

Everything was unleashed at the time of the 1900s , with the arrival of the First World War and the Soviet Revolution in Europe , some events began that were triggers for what is avant-garde, which began as a simple innovative political movement that He tried to hope for the citizens who were overwhelmed by the events that were taking place.

In 1920 , other events burdened the population more, causing the appeased avant-garde to reemerge by the time of World War II, this time, to stay not only as a trend, but as a current that would transform not only viewers’ perceptions. , but also culture and some customs , later spreading around the world, in various regions and nations.


The avant-garde is extremely easy to discriminate, however, some of its most outstanding characteristics will be expressed below:

  • It originated mainly in Europe , in the course of the 1900s , during what was the First World War, the Soviet Revolution and the Second World War.
  • Mix of political and cultural ideologies.
  • Current, trend and political, artistic, cultural and literary movement.
  • It brings to society new ways of perceiving reality, space.
  • It was born thanks to a reality that was radically changing.
  • New ways of understanding the human being and reality.
  • Innovation and new ideals.
  • Experimentation.
  • Fight against the traditions and customs of yesteryear.
  • Freedom of form.
  • Remoteness from the panoramas and status of the norm.
  • It developed through various manifestations, such as sculpture, painting and architecture.


Its main objective is to leave behind everything that is obsolete for society , to open new perceptions of what reality is, the way of seeing the world and the events that take place, to have a new life, from a new perspective; innovation and novelties are the epicenter of this current and artistic movement.

Expressions and Ismos

The avant-garde from its origins manifested itself in various ways, however, its expressions are as follows:

  • Impressionism
  • Expressionism.
  • The Fauves .
  • The Cubism .
  • The futurism .
  • The Dadaism .
  • Ultraism.
  • The surrealism .
  • Stridentism.
  • Arieldentism.

Hand in hand with the various manifestations that it had, of which the most outstanding were the following:

  • Sculpture.
  • Painting.
  • Architecture.
  • Literature.
  • Themes

Some of the most relevant themes of the avant-garde are the following:

  • Politics.
  • Economy.
  • Culture.
  • Traditions.
  • Relevant events in society for the moment.
  • Pessimistic view of the world.
  • Apocalyptic tone.

Literary avant-garde

The literary avant-garde developed with momentum, reaching and spreading to various parts of the world, talking about everything that was known since ancient times but in a renewed way, thus changing the perception of readers in everything related to the traditions that previously they were manifested, romance, politics and culture since then would be transformed and changed.

Avant-garde by country

  • Spain: In this country the avant-garde was mainly manifested in literature.
  • France: This is considered the cradle of the avant-garde, which is why it expanded from this country to the others.
  • In Switzerland and the United States: It arises thanks to Dadaism.
  • Germany: It arises from various artistic movements and develops as an artistic trend.
  • Italy: It emerged based on futurism.


  • YokoOno.
  • FernandLéger.
  • Marta Minujín.
  • Eva Aeppli.
  • Taro Okamoto.
  • Elsa Von Freytag-Loringhoven.
  • Beatrice Wood.
  • MarjorieStrider.
  • MaudeKerns.
  • LajosVajda.



  • Oscar – Claude Monet. “Impression, rising sun” (1874) Impressionist.
  • Henry Matisse. “The dance” Fauvista.
  • Eduardo Munch. “The Scream”. Expressionist.
  • Paul Cézanne. “Basket of Apples” 1895.


  • Edgar Degas: “Little Dancer Fourteen” 1881.
  • Shake Rodin. “The Bronze Age” 1877.
  • Paul Gauguin. “Jar in the Shape of a Head” 1889.
  • Pablo Picasso: “Head of a Woman” 1909.

European literature

  • Marcel Proust. “In Search of Lost Time”. He composes this work throughout his life and publishes it between 1913 and 1927, in brief installments.
  • Albert Camus. His themes are the absurd and the reasons for living. “The Stranger” 1942.
  • Samuel Becket. Poet, novelist and playwright. It is identified with the absurd gender. Malone Dies 1951.

Latin American pictorial vanguard

  • Diego Rivera. Mexico . “Flower Festival.” 1925.
  • Roberto Matta. Chile. Surreal. “Night invasion” 1941.
  • Xul Solar . Argentina. “RuaRuini” 1949.

Latin American literary avant-garde

  • Cesar Vallejo. Peru. Modernist. “Wild Fable” Qualified as a “psychological novel”. 1923.
  • Vicente Huidobro. Chile. Creationist. “The grotto of silence”.
  • Jorge Luis Borges. Argentina. Ultraistic. “The man in the pink corner”. 1927.


It could be said that this was and is a highly relevant artistic trend for those who are society, since a radical change is always needed to stoke hope in the community as a whole; innovation and novelties ignite that spark that, because of realities, is appeased.


It can be concluded then, that the avant-garde is an extremely important artistic trend for society and its development , since without these innovative manifestations society for those times of war needed something that made them gradually forget about traditions and old customs, impacting with great force in their structures and knocking them down.


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