Throughout the passage of history , art has always drawn characteristics from which the currents that preceded them and leaving great contributions to humanity such as the case of mannerism which left behind great works of art such as “La Gioconda” by Miguel Angel.
Classicism , romanticism , avant-garde
What is mannerism?
In terms of art , mannerism refers to know-how and everything that encompasses it, without the need to make a great effort to achieve it . In general, it is an art that was dedicated to the courts since, despite everything, it maintained a certain sophistication even without taking care of certain details that were maintained in previous artistic trends. It is considered as a transitory process between the rebirth when it was reaching the crisis and the opening of the baroque.
- What does it consist of
- Characteristics of mannerism
- Historic context
- Mannerism in music
- In sculpture
- In the paint
- Mannerism in architecture
- Relationship with rebirth
- Relationship with the baroque
- Representatives of mannerism
What does it consist of
The mannerism begins to form the basic elements of the Renaissance , when it began to face the crisis . This comes as a significant change which completely abandoned the proportions of the figures with respect to their spatial perspective , as well as a disregard for the clear and measured lines ; for their part, the happy expressions in the works changed to more neutral and sad ones.
Characteristics of mannerism
Among the main characteristics that define mannerism are:
- Mannerism is subjective and unstable , so in some points it gets confusing.
- Artists allow themselves to be carried away by their tastes , leaving aside the plausible and tending greatly towards unreality and abstraction
- In sculpture above all, the serpentine line or figure is preferred . In more technical terms, it refers to the fact that the figures are arranged in an ascending helical direction.
- During these periods they were inspired by the greats of literature such as Miguel de Cervantes and Shakespeare .
Mannerism originates from within Italy exactly in the third decade of the 16th century, largely encompassing the works of great artists such as Rafael and Miguel Angel . It arises when classicism begins to lack the details that made it different, such as the harmonic proportions and the exact details of the expressions.
Mannerism was largely an artistic trend that is still in force in Italy and that with the passage of time it spread throughout Europe , always to the standards of the Italians .
Among the causes that led to the spread of Mannerism ny of the peninsula itálica was thanks the travel of artists , largely driven by the plague that attacked in 1522 the famous “Eternal City “ .
Among all the situations that arose, it is in particular marked the consciences and the lives of Roman citizens and artists . After the plague after the invasion at the hands of an army made up mainly of Spaniards, Italians and German mercenaries also known as lansquenetes, I end up promoting this artistic trend throughout the rest of the continent.
Mannerism in music
In the field of music , there is a certain tension exists between the desire to preserve a high level of skills against punteo and the urge to accompany all feeling is both idea and feelings with images. That is why in terms of musical pieces it is seen far above and not as in other cases that it addresses in a much more profound way.
Regarding the sculptures of this artistic movement, one can be seen full nudity in almost all works, trying to stop to give meaning to the human being with regard to their physical part but rather by the acts that they performed . It seeks to maintain the fantastic actions and stories , as well as the misfortunes of the characters in question such as the case of the work of ” Perseus and the head of Medusa “.
In the paint
As for painting within Marianism, machismo is dominated by dark colors , in general, nudes or portraits are often worked with very few articles of clothing . At the same time, work is done from a direct perspective where there are no major features regarding expressions , where brightness plays a very important role since it gives more context to the emotion that is trying to be transmitted .
Mannerism in architecture
Within the marienista architecture , they are buildings that lack of clarity regarding its composition as well as is also observed almost complete loss of the solemnity with respect to the classism full preceded him.
On the other hand, the works greatly expand the architectural elements, but they do not fulfill any function within them and as regards the decoration, he sought to compartmentalize it between the various façades of the buildings.
Relationship with rebirth
The Renaissance currents were those that preceded to the mannerism , this achievement sinter artistic foundation in which artists worked and adapt a new way transmitting messages and different sensations. This is mostly seen in the sculptures where man is maintained as the center of the universe but emphasis is not placed on him but on the actions that surround him .
Relationship with the baroque
Because mannerism is considered as the “ Low stage of rebirth ”, it is taken as a transitory process, the sweet and loving features within the works as well as the subtle lines that characterized it, were largely abandoned , thus taking it to a style where devotional art is abandoned and a self-sufficient art is passed where the works are considered museum worthy.
Representatives of mannerism
Among the most prominent representatives of mannerism are:
- El Greco .
- Hans Baldung.
- Lucas Cranach, father.
- Hans holbein son.
- Martin Heemskerck.
- Leonardo da Vinci.
- Rafael Sanzio .
- Jacobo Basano.
- Giovnni Maria Mosca.
- Nicolo Dell Albatte.
- Miguel Angel.
- Lope de Vega .
Among the most outstanding works of mannerism are:
- Noah’s Ark.
- The abduction of Proserpina.
- Antonio and cleopatra.
- The allegory of love
- Allegory of Venus .
- La Gioconda.
- The paris trial.
- Perseus with the head of a jellyfish.
- The final judgement.
- Saint Mark freed slaves.
- Piedad Rondanini.