Atomic physics . Science that studies the properties and behavior of atoms. John Dalton ( 1766 – 1844 ), generally recognized as the founder of the atomic theory of matter, despite the fact that atomism had continuous exponents from the time of Democritus . Dalton gave theory solid scientific content and thus transformed it into the basis of physics and chemistry . The atoms of one element, he said, are the same, but the atom of one element differs from the atom of another. He believed that the atoms were indivisible.
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- 1 Achievements achieved
- 1 Technology
- 2 Novel Awards
- 3 Sources
Among the achievements of atomic physics that have an impact on technology are: lasers , manipulation of atoms with the help of lasers, and fullerenes, which are new materials formed from conglomerates of carbon atoms . The dynamic development of this science can be captured by observing some of the advances made in 1994 and 1995 :
- Nano-structures formed by focusing atoms with laser light.
- Measurement of atomic masses using trapped ions with electromagnetic fields.
- Search for new physical phenomena with helium .
- Trapped very high charge ions.
- Bose-Einstein condensation in clusters of few atoms.
- Atfer interferometry.
- Nano-structures to guide atoms.
It is noteworthy that 31 scientists have received Nobel prizes in physics and chemistry for their contributions to the development of atomic, molecular and optical science since 1964.
- The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1996 was awarded to RF Curl, HW Kroto and RE Smalley for the discovery of fullerenes.
- The Physics Professor from 1997 to C. Cohen-Tannoudji, S. Chu and WD Phillips for developing methods to cool and trap atoms with laser radiation .
- Chemistry from 1998 to W. Kohn and JA Pople for developing density functional theory and computational methods in quantum chemistry .
- Chemistry 1999 to AH Zewail for his studies on the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy.
- The 2001 Physics to EA Cornell, W. Ketterle and CE Wieman for fundamental studies of the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates.