Quantum Physics (also known as wave mechanics) is the branch of physics that studies the behavior of matter when its dimensions are so small, around 1,000 atoms , that effects such as the impossibility of knowing exactly begin to be noticed. the position of a particle , or its energy , or simultaneously know its position and speed , without affecting the particle itself (described according to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle).
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- 1 Emergence
- 2 The two pillars of this theory are:
- 3 References
- 4 Sources
It emerged throughout the first half of the 20th century in response to problems that could not be solved through classical physics.
The two pillars of this theory are:
- The particles exchange energy in integer multiples of a minimum possible amount, called the quantum of energy.
- The position of the particles is defined by a function that describes the probability that said particle is in that position at that moment.
The fact that energy is exchanged discreetly was highlighted by experimental facts, inexplicable with the tools of classical mechanics , such as the following:
According to Classical Physics, the energy radiated by a black body, an object that absorbs all the energy that falls on it, was infinite, which was a disaster. This was solved by Max Planck through the quantization of energy, that is, the black body took discrete energy values whose minimum packages he called “quantum”. This calculation was also consistent with Wien’s law (which is a result of thermodynamics, and therefore independent of the details of the model used). According to this last law, every black body radiates with a wavelength (energy) that depends on its temperature .
The corpuscle wave duality, also called the particle wave, resolved an apparent paradox, demonstrating that light and matter can both possess particle properties and wave properties. Wave-particle duality is now considered to be a “concept in quantum mechanics that there are no fundamental differences between particles and waves: particles can behave like waves and vice versa.