Science or discipline whose scope is the study, design and manufacture of mechanical devices capable of rising in flight, as well as the set of techniques that allow the control of aircraft such as air navigation . Aeronautics includes aerostation based on the use of devices lighter than air (balloons and airships ), aviation that uses heavier devices than air supported by planes (airplanes) or horizontal propellers ( helicopters and autogyros), and astronautics whose rockets , for developing a force greater than gravity they rise without the need for sustaining planes with everything and they are devices heavier than air.
|The development of aviation was preceded by centuries of dreams, study, speculation and experimentation. The desire to fly has accompanied man practically since its origins. In ancient times it was thought that human flight would be possible by imitating the movement of bird wings. Famous is the legend of Daedalus and Icarus , who manage to escape captivity on the island of Minos using wings tied with wax behind their backs. In the same way many civilizations developed legends where people with divine powers were able to fly and reach the sky of the gods. With technological development, man began making attempts to realize his dream of flying.
By the fifth century of our era, the first flying device was designed: the comet or kite. In the thirteenth century the English monk Roger Bacon concluded that the air could withstand an ingenuity in the same way that water supports a ship. The works carried out by the Italian inventor and artist Leonardo da Vinci in the 16th century, who studied the flight of birds and human anatomy to try to achieve an effective aircraft, are also notable . Humanity in those years did not yet have the technological development to keep in the air a device powered by its own energy.
Since the eighteenth century, the human being began to experiment with a new variant: the use of machines that managed to ascend using gases less heavy than air. Hot air balloon experiments soon became popular. These aircraft managed to rise in the air, but had the disadvantage of not being able to be controlled. Only in the nineteenth century would this difficulty be overcome with the appearance of airships. The nineteenth century also brought the development of flight with gliders . Soon people like the German Otto Lilienthal and the American Octave Chanute obtained important achievements in this field.
Only at the beginning of the twentieth century were the first flights produced using aircraft heavier than air and propelled by their own engines. Although there have been important discussions in this regard, today it is considered that the first controlled flight of a device heavier than engine-driven air took place on December 17 , 1903 when the Wright brothers blew their “Flyer” on Kitty Hawk Hill , in North Carolina , United States .
As of this date, aeronautical development has maintained a continuous rhythm, which continues today. Aeronautical designers constantly tried to take advantage of technological advances to achieve better features and performance. As of the 20s, a rampant competition began to achieve the establishment of new records. The military conflicts of the twentieth century played a decisive role in the development of aviation and the Cold War period in the second half of the century took competition between the two world systems to levels never seen before by mankind.
Recently, aeronautical development includes the development of safer and cheaper aircraft in operation. The use of computer technology has made it possible to free man from the exhausting control processes, while at the same time achieving unsuspected levels of maneuverability. The use of composite materials has allowed significant weight savings and increased resistance. Currently working on the development of airplanes capable of leaving the outside atmosphere and returning to flight flying in a conventional manner.