Poetry is a type of literary work that is built using rhythms and poems that cause certain effects. Poetry often also contains the figure of speech delivered implicitly. Etymologically poetry comes from the Greek poites meaning to form, create, and build. In Latin poeta means to cause, build, cause and poise.
The physical element of poetry
Poetry built comes from two elements, namely the physical element and the inner element of poetry . The physical element is the element that builds poetry from the outside. This element consists of diction, imagination, concrete words, figurative language, versification, and facial design (Waluyo, 1987: 106-130)
1. Dictionary (word choice)
The words chosen in the poem must consider the meaning, sound, and relationship with other words both lines and lines. Words in poetry are connotative and denotative. The choice of words in poetry usually emphasizes beauty. Connotative and symbolic words can cause multiple interpretations because they can have more than one meaning. The language of poetry tends to be dense, so choice of words is very necessary.
Imagining (imagery) is a word or series of words that create power imajniasi to listeners. Imagination involves the sensory elements such as sight, sound, and touch. The image element can evoke imagination as if feeling, hearing, or seeing what the poet is worried about. Imagination is divided into three, namely audif imagination (hearing a voice) that is, in words that seem to be lovers of poetry listening, for example in “motherland groans”, visual imagination (seeing objects) that is as if lovers of poetry see events ” rainwater “, tactile imagination (groping and touching) that is as if touching / groping for example” agin blowing “.
3. Kata concrete
Concrete words are the embodiment of words – words that are clear, easy to understand, and concrete. Through concrete words the poem can be easily imagined by the listener or reader, so that it is as if the listener of the poem sees, hears, and feels what the events and situations described by the poet describe.
4. Majas (Figurative Language)
Poetry is very close to the majas. Many parables are displayed through words or expressions. Majas also gives rise to many meanings so poetry becomes prismative. Majas in poetry is also used to compare objects or words and make things up with other things. In addition, majas is also able to convey the intent of poets to be more effective. Majas commonly used are metaphor, simile, anaphora, and paradox.
5. Versification (Rhyme, Rhythm, and Metrum)
Rhyme is the repetition of sound used to bring out the repetition of sound on the whole line and stanza, while rhyme in old poetry is called rhyme (sound equation) that is with repetition on each line. Rhythm is a repetition of a poetic phrase also called rhythm. Rhythm is also defined as the rising and falling of the voice regularly. Metrum is a repetition of word stress.
6. Face setup (Typography)
Poetry is composed in verse, not paragraphs. Poetry is arranged in a array – to create meaning. The application of typography will strengthen the presentation of poetry. Poetry does not have to fulfill authorship. Through this typography, it can be distinguished between poetry and other literary works such as prose and scrip drama. Therefore the use of capital letters and punctuation (dots, commas, dots, etc.) affects the meaning of poetry.
Apart from physical elements, there are still inner elements such as themes, poet’s feelings , tone or poet’s attitude towards the reader (tone), mandate (intention). We have discussed the types of poetry themes in the previous article, namely knowing the types of poetry themes . Discussion of the inner elements of poetry will be discussed in the next article.