Speech And Language has been contradictory issue in linguistics.Language is the social system of signs, naturally occurring in human society. It is the most important means of communication. The sign language establishes a correspondence between the set of sounds and a set of values. Language exists in two forms: the sound and writing.
The relationship between language and speech was delivered in linguistics for a long time. However, this concept was clearly defined by Ferdinand de Saussure in his “Course in General Linguistics”. After the publication of his work, many scientists have devoted their research to this problem.
The problem of the relation of language functions and features of speech solved by different linguists differently: some scientists use the term “function” in relation to the language, the other to the speech.
The above terms are not entirely identical.
On this basis are the following functions of language and speech:
FUNCTIONS OF Language:
- The means of verbal creation of artistic images.
- . The means of expressing emotions and internal states of the human will.
- . The means of knowledge.
- . The means of generating new units of language subsystems.
- . The means of accumulation and storage of social experience and knowledge.
- The means of communication.
FUNCTIONS OF speech:
- The implementation of the communication
- Implementation of the process of creating artistic images, and works for aesthetic function.
- Implementation of the expression of emotions and internal states of the human will.
- Implementation of the learning process.
- Implementation of the process of generation of new units of language subsystems.
- Implementation of the process of accumulation and storage of social experience and knowledge.
The study of language activity is divided into two parts: the primary part studies objectivity of language. Secondary is a subjective and individual side study of speech activity. Saussure emphasized further that “both of these items are closely linked and mutually imply each other.
We not only know but also feel the language It is defined as the phenomenon of individual life where it comes to individual self-expression. Language comes to life in the speech.
The Single Most Important Thing You Need To Know About Speech And Language
Let’s look at what are the criteria adopted to oppose language and speech
|Languageas a means of communication||Speechas an activity|
|Object ideal and material nature||speech referred to as approval, meaning it inside|
|Socio-cultural heritage. It is a system of signs governed by||Functional System (implementation of the language system); He admits in the speech acts the element of chance, and sometimes deliberate violations|
|The signs are a means of cognition.Every thought is a sign,||The signs are a means of communication|
|Unfocused but functional (communicative, cognitive, regulatory, and others. Language features)||Intentional|
|It has tier organization||Linear; It exists in oral and written form|
|In a given period of stable||Dynamic|
|Objective reality, social||Subjective, Individual|
|It fixes the linguistic picture of the world, formed in the lingvokulture||Reflect individual experiences a separate media language consciousness|
|Evaluation from the point of truth / falsity can not be applied||It can be evaluated from the standpoint of truth / falsity|
Language is recognized main means of implementation of speech activity.
Look at the diagram:
|Language ability(language competence, memory, language, linguistic potency)|
|The language process(speech activity, speech)|
|Language works(text, speech material)|
The intention of the speaker is at the heart of the process of speech and of the content that has informative significance. After communication involves, primarily, the transmission and reception of information. Any statement containing information. But it also expresses the position of the speaker in relation to its content. they are two different phenomena. But these phenomena are interconnected and interdependent. Language exists as a living, since it functions and operates it in the speech.