What Is Taa language

The Taa language ( ! Xóõ, Taa ǂaan ) is a language belonging to the khoisan family , has a large number of phonemes , being considered by specialists the language that has the most sounds, including click consonants and tonal vowels.

Geographical distribution

There are about 3,000 to 4,000 speakers in Botswana (1995 data), 50 in Namibia , distributed in the districts of Gantsi Sul , Kgalagadi Norte , Kweneng Sudoeste , Hua Sul and Xatia .

They are groups of sedentary hunter-gatherers who live in the savannah plains and at elevations of 1,100 meters , Christians and native religions .

Those over ten who live with people of other ethnicities use languages ​​like Tswana, kgalagadi, herero, naro, g’wi-khwe as a second language.

It is the only surviving language of the tuu group , of which the Nǀu language existed until the 1990s .

Dialects [ edit | edit source code ]

Although with few speakers, the language! Xóõ presented and presents some dialects , due to a relative isolation between the different groups:

  • Ki’hazi (extinct)
  • NG’U’En (extinct)
  • Nusan
  • Xatia
  • Ikwi
  • Kakia (extinct)
  • Auni (extinct)
  • N’gamani (extinct)

There are discussions among scholars about these names, whether they are really ǃxóõ dialects, alternative ǃxóõ names, dialects of other related languages ​​or even a continuum of different dialects.

Phonology [ edit | edit source code ]

The alphabet used for transliteration is Latin , based on the work of missionaries and linguists . This writing is better detailed at Omniglot.com – Writing!

Specialist Anthony Traill produced extensive research in that language in all its aspects, wrote an dicionárioxóõ dictionary and an important book on the phonetics of that language.

Syllables are formed by cv , cvv , cvcv , cvn .

Tones [ edit | edit source code ]

There are four tones for vowels:

  • High – symbol. THE
  • Low – simb. THE
  • Medium – simb. THE
  • Average decreasing – symbol. THE.

Vowels [ edit | edit source code ]

There are 26 vowel sounds , based on five types of vowels; full, murmured, glottalized, pharyngized, strident; They can also be both glottalized and murmured, or at the same time pharyngized and glottalized; Not to mention the nasalizations and lengths (long, short) applied to the 26 vowels.

The vowels can be long or short. The features can be vowel sequences without being a separate phoneme. The diphthongs present in Xóô are ai , ae , ao , au , oi , oe , oa , or , ui , ue , ua ;

All full vowels can be nasalized. Other phonemes cannot be nasalized, however, nasalizations occur in combination with other phonemic processes such as a second long vowel or diphthong. These sequences alternate dialectically with velar-nasal vowels. The name of the language! Xóõ can be a k’Xóŋ or even k’Xó ?, With the possible nasalizations in! Xóõ there are at least 31 vowels.

the glottalized, whispered the still nasalized with decreasing tone is represented by <ô’hõ>. A the long, shrill, nasalized low tone is written <òqhõ>. Stridences can be considered as phonemically pharyngized, even though they are distinct phonemic characteristics.

Muttered vowels after full consonants contrast with full vowels after aspirated consonants and with glottalized vowels with eject consonants. These are vowel phonations without being assimilated with consonant phonation.

Consonants [ edit | edit source code ]

The xóõ language has very few mixed phonations in its consonants. They have already been considered with pre-vocals, although they appear with consonant groups. When they really form a single phoneme – ex. “[dt], appear in the following consonant table:

Depending on no clicks Lips Dental Alveolar Palatals Velares Matched Clicks ? Uvulars Matched Clicks ? Global
Stopped Vocal b ~ v d ʣ ɡ ɡǃ

etc.

ɢ ~ ɴɢ ɢǃ ~ ɴɢǃ

etc.

Tenuous t ʦ k

etc.

q

etc.

ʔ
Aspirated ʦʰ kǃʰ

etc.

Ejective ʦʼ kxʼ kǃʼqʼ

etc.

(qʼ) qǃʼ

etc.

Aspirated set dtʰ dʦʰ etc.h

etc.

ɢqʰ ~ ɴɢqʰ etc.h

etc.

Ejective Set dʦʼ ɡkxʼ ɡ! qʼ

etc.

Fricative Mute s x kǃx

etc.  ?

Vocal Nasal m n ɲ (ŋ) ŋǃ

etc.

Glottalized ʔŋǃ

etc.

others (l) dʲ ~ j

Some nasal sounds only occur between vowels, others like ŋ only as a final in some dialects, being allophonic.

There are other consonant clusters, such as: tx, dtx, ʦx, dʦx, tkxʼ, dtkxʼ, ʦʼkxʼ, dʦʼkxʼ. Also, some click tracking is not included in the table above.

The language! Xóõ features 83 click sounds. Due to the complexity of consonant clusters, even without clicks, many click indications are analyzed as sets of consonants, which generates debates and discussions among specialists.

There are five types of clicks: bilabial, dental, lateral, alveolar, palatal. There are also seventeen accompaniments between velares and uvulares. These are typical consonants of! Xóõ, being preferable to non-clicks as initials of words.

Fricative Clicks ‘ Treble Clicks accompaniments, conf. Speaker or Dialectal Variation
Lip Gloss Dental Click Alveolar Lateral Click Post-Alveolar Click Palatal Click
Fine ( k )
Tenuous Uvular ( q )
ŋ̊ʘ ŋ̊ǀ ŋ̊ǁ ŋ̊! ŋ̊ǂ Nasal Mute ( ŋ̊ )
ɡʘ ɡǀ ɡǁ ɡǃ ɡǂ Sound ( ɡ )
ɢʘ ɢǀ ɢǁ ɢǃ ɢǂ Pre-nasalized Uvular Sound ( ɢ, ɴɢ )
ŋʘ ŋǀ ŋǁ ŋǃ ŋǂ Sound Nasal ( ŋ )
kʘʰ kǀʰ kǁʰ kǃʰ kǂʰ Aspirated ( kʰ )
ŋ̊ʘʰ ŋ̊ǀʰ ŋ̊ǁʰ ŋ̊ǃʰ ŋ̊ǂʰ Ingressive Mute Nasal followed by Aspiration ( ↓ ŋ̊ʰ )
kʘˣ kǀˣ kǁˣ kǃˣ kǂˣ Mute Fricative ( kˣ )
ˀŋʘ ˀŋǀ ˀŋǁ ˀŋǃ ˀŋǂ Pre-glottalized Nasal ( ˀŋ )
qʘʼ qǀʼ qǁʼ qǃʼ qǂʼ Uvular Ejective ( qʼ )
kʘˀ kǀˀ kǁˀ kǃˀ kǂˀ Glottalized Plosive ( kˀ )
ɡʘx ɡǀx ɡǁx ɡǃx ɡǂx Plosivo velar Sonoro followed by voiceless velar fricative ( ɡx, ɡkx )
kʘʼqʼ kǀʼqʼ kǁʼqʼ kǃʼqʼ kǂʼqʼ Velar Ejective followed by uvular ejective ( kʼqʼ, dialectically kxʼ )
ɡʘqʼ ɡǀqʼ ɡǁqʼ ɡǃqʼ ɡǂqʼ Velar Sonoro plosive followed by uvular ejective ( ɡqʼ, dialectically ɡkxʼ )
ɡʘh ɡǀh ɡǁh ɡǃh ɢǂh Audible velar plosive followed by aspiration ( ɡh, ɡkʰ )
ɢǀh ɢǃh ɢǂh Expressed (pre-nasalized) Uvular plosive followed by aspiration, Velar fricative or uvular vibration ( ᴺɢh, ᴺɢx, ᴺɢʀ )

Peter Ladefoged analyzed the first ten follow-ups by the AFI ŋ series with simple, the other seven with complexes, which would lead to the definition of 50 as the number of clicks. There are doubts about the consonant sets, about the double clicks, about the number of segments to be considered, etc. Glottalized clicks can be considered as simple consonants. Studies of the extinct sister language n’u lead to the question of whether all clicks are not all uvulars with posterior articulation, and uvulars could still be velo-pulmonary with velo-glotalic air flow. The pre-vowel consonants of! Xóõ are also considered to be boundary.

Grammar [ edit | edit source code ]

The language! Xóõ presents SVO sentences . The direct object comes before the indirect.

Affixes to the verb mark the subject’s and object’s gender; they also indicate passive voice , causative (by reduplication), comparative;

The prepositions , adjectives , genitive , pronouns follow after the noun . Words can have up to two prefixes and three suffixes.

As in other Khoisan languages , the words for questions (questions) come at the beginning of the sentence.

Examples of texts [ edit | edit source code ]

Compiled by Anthony Traill from the dialect! Oriental xóõ.

ǃnˤù.ṵ ì The ǁʼà-be .Mù.m ʘàa leave
Hare 14 1PRO PST take: S – 3 Antelope 3 Cub 34 further
“Like a hare, she took the baby antelope”

 

ǃqháa̰ ǂnûm ǁɢˤûlite ǀè dtxóʔlu ǀnàe ǂʼá sˤàa̰
to give MPO: 4PRO two genital: 22 – P ASS: 3 bad smell: 3 DAT: 3PRO WITH: 2 fat: 22
“Give them your smelly genitals with fat”

 

is a language belonging to the khoisan family , has a large number of phonemes , being considered by specialists the language that has the most sounds, including click consonants and tonal vowels.

Geographical distribution

There are about 3,000 to 4,000 speakers in Botswana (1995 data), 50 in Namibia , distributed in the districts of Gantsi Sul , Kgalagadi Norte , Kweneng Sudoeste , Hua Sul and Xatia .

They are groups of sedentary hunter-gatherers who live in the savannah plains and at elevations of 1,100 meters , Christians and native religions .

Those over ten who live with people of other ethnicities use languages ​​like Tswana, kgalagadi, herero, naro, g’wi-khwe as a second language.

It is the only surviving language of the tuu group , of which the Nǀu language existed until the 1990s .

Dialects

Although with few speakers, the language! Xóõ presented and presents some dialects , due to a relative isolation between the different groups:

  • Ki’hazi (extinct)
  • NG’U’En (extinct)
  • Nusan
  • Xatia
  • Ikwi
  • Kakia (extinct)
  • Auni (extinct)
  • N’gamani (extinct)

There are discussions among scholars about these names, whether they are really ǃxóõ dialects, alternative ǃxóõ names, dialects of other related languages ​​or even a continuum of different dialects.

Phonology

The alphabet used for transliteration is Latin , based on the work of missionaries and linguists . This writing is better detailed at Omniglot.com – Writing!

Specialist Anthony Traill produced extensive research in that language in all its aspects, wrote an dicionárioxóõ dictionary and an important book on the phonetics of that language.

Syllables are formed by cv , cvv , cvcv , cvn .

Tones

There are four tones for vowels:

  • High – symbol. THE
  • Low – simb. THE
  • Medium – simb. THE
  • Average decreasing – symbol. THE.

Vowels [ edit | edit source code ]

There are 26 vowel sounds , based on five types of vowels; full, murmured, glottalized, pharyngized, strident; They can also be both glottalized and murmured, or at the same time pharyngized and glottalized; Not to mention the nasalizations and lengths (long, short) applied to the 26 vowels.

The vowels can be long or short. The features can be vowel sequences without being a separate phoneme. The diphthongs present in Xóô are ai , ae , ao , au , oi , oe , oa , or , ui , ue , ua ;

All full vowels can be nasalized. Other phonemes cannot be nasalized, however, nasalizations occur in combination with other phonemic processes such as a second long vowel or diphthong. These sequences alternate dialectically with velar-nasal vowels. The name of the language! Xóõ can be a k’Xóŋ or even k’Xó ?, With the possible nasalizations in! Xóõ there are at least 31 vowels.

the glottalized, whispered the still nasalized with decreasing tone is represented by <ô’hõ>. A the long, shrill, nasalized low tone is written <òqhõ>. Stridences can be considered as phonemically pharyngized, even though they are distinct phonemic characteristics.

Muttered vowels after full consonants contrast with full vowels after aspirated consonants and with glottalized vowels with eject consonants. These are vowel phonations without being assimilated with consonant phonation.

Consonants [ edit | edit source code ]

The xóõ language has very few mixed phonations in its consonants. They have already been considered with pre-vocals, although they appear with consonant groups. When they really form a single phoneme – ex. “[dt], appear in the following consonant table:

Depending on no clicks Lips Dental Alveolar Palatals Velares Matched Clicks ? Uvulars Matched Clicks ? Global
Stopped Vocal b ~ v d ʣ ɡ ɡǃ

etc.

ɢ ~ ɴɢ ɢǃ ~ ɴɢǃ

etc.

Tenuous t ʦ k

etc.

q

etc.

ʔ
Aspirated ʦʰ kǃʰ

etc.

Ejective ʦʼ kxʼ kǃʼqʼ

etc.

(qʼ) qǃʼ

etc.

Aspirated set dtʰ dʦʰ etc.h

etc.

ɢqʰ ~ ɴɢqʰ etc.h

etc.

Ejective Set dʦʼ ɡkxʼ ɡ! qʼ

etc.

Fricative Mute s x kǃx

etc.  ?

Vocal Nasal m n ɲ (ŋ) ŋǃ

etc.

Glottalized ʔŋǃ

etc.

others (l) dʲ ~ j

Some nasal sounds only occur between vowels, others like ŋ only as a final in some dialects, being allophonic.

There are other consonant clusters, such as: tx, dtx, ʦx, dʦx, tkxʼ, dtkxʼ, ʦʼkxʼ, dʦʼkxʼ. Also, some click tracking is not included in the table above.

The language! Xóõ features 83 click sounds. Due to the complexity of consonant clusters, even without clicks, many click indications are analyzed as sets of consonants, which generates debates and discussions among specialists.

There are five types of clicks: bilabial, dental, lateral, alveolar, palatal. There are also seventeen accompaniments between velares and uvulares. These are typical consonants of! Xóõ, being preferable to non-clicks as initials of words.

Fricative Clicks ‘ Treble Clicks accompaniments, conf. Speaker or Dialectal Variation
Lip Gloss Dental Click Alveolar Lateral Click Post-Alveolar Click Palatal Click
Fine ( k )
Tenuous Uvular ( q )
ŋ̊ʘ ŋ̊ǀ ŋ̊ǁ ŋ̊! ŋ̊ǂ Nasal Mute ( ŋ̊ )
ɡʘ ɡǀ ɡǁ ɡǃ ɡǂ Sound ( ɡ )
ɢʘ ɢǀ ɢǁ ɢǃ ɢǂ Pre-nasalized Uvular Sound ( ɢ, ɴɢ )
ŋʘ ŋǀ ŋǁ ŋǃ ŋǂ Sound Nasal ( ŋ )
kʘʰ kǀʰ kǁʰ kǃʰ kǂʰ Aspirated ( kʰ )
ŋ̊ʘʰ ŋ̊ǀʰ ŋ̊ǁʰ ŋ̊ǃʰ ŋ̊ǂʰ Ingressive Mute Nasal followed by Aspiration ( ↓ ŋ̊ʰ )
kʘˣ kǀˣ kǁˣ kǃˣ kǂˣ Mute Fricative ( kˣ )
ˀŋʘ ˀŋǀ ˀŋǁ ˀŋǃ ˀŋǂ Pre-glottalized Nasal ( ˀŋ )
qʘʼ qǀʼ qǁʼ qǃʼ qǂʼ Uvular Ejective ( qʼ )
kʘˀ kǀˀ kǁˀ kǃˀ kǂˀ Glottalized Plosive ( kˀ )
ɡʘx ɡǀx ɡǁx ɡǃx ɡǂx Plosivo velar Sonoro followed by voiceless velar fricative ( ɡx, ɡkx )
kʘʼqʼ kǀʼqʼ kǁʼqʼ kǃʼqʼ kǂʼqʼ Velar Ejective followed by uvular ejective ( kʼqʼ, dialectically kxʼ )
ɡʘqʼ ɡǀqʼ ɡǁqʼ ɡǃqʼ ɡǂqʼ Velar Sonoro plosive followed by uvular ejective ( ɡqʼ, dialectically ɡkxʼ )
ɡʘh ɡǀh ɡǁh ɡǃh ɢǂh Audible velar plosive followed by aspiration ( ɡh, ɡkʰ )
ɢǀh ɢǃh ɢǂh Expressed (pre-nasalized) Uvular plosive followed by aspiration, Velar fricative or uvular vibration ( ᴺɢh, ᴺɢx, ᴺɢʀ )

Peter Ladefoged analyzed the first ten follow-ups by the AFI ŋ series with simple, the other seven with complexes, which would lead to the definition of 50 as the number of clicks. There are doubts about the consonant sets, about the double clicks, about the number of segments to be considered, etc. Glottalized clicks can be considered as simple consonants. Studies of the extinct sister language n’u lead to the question of whether all clicks are not all uvulars with posterior articulation, and uvulars could still be velo-pulmonary with velo-glotalic air flow. The pre-vowel consonants of! Xóõ are also considered to be boundary.

Grammar [ edit | edit source code ]

The language! Xóõ presents SVO sentences . The direct object comes before the indirect.

Affixes to the verb mark the subject’s and object’s gender; they also indicate passive voice , causative (by reduplication), comparative;

The prepositions , adjectives , genitive , pronouns follow after the noun . Words can have up to two prefixes and three suffixes.

As in other Khoisan languages , the words for questions (questions) come at the beginning of the sentence.

Examples of texts [ edit | edit source code ]

Compiled by Anthony Traill from the dialect! Oriental xóõ.

ǃnˤù.ṵ ì The ǁʼà-be .Mù.m ʘàa leave
Hare 14 1PRO PST take: S – 3 Antelope 3 Cub 34 further
“Like a hare, she took the baby antelope”

 

ǃqháa̰ ǂnûm ǁɢˤûlite ǀè dtxóʔlu ǀnàe ǂʼá sˤàa̰
to give MPO: 4PRO two genital: 22 – P ASS: 3 bad smell: 3 DAT: 3PRO WITH: 2 fat: 22
“Give them your smelly genitals with fat”

 

Leave a Comment