What is Sociology

Simply defined, sociology is a discipline that deals with the study and analysis of social relations of human beings and institutions. The topics of study within sociology are broad and can range from crime and religion to social stability and radical changes in human societies. All these arguments are unified in the discipline of sociology in an attempt to understand how human beings and their behaviors are influenced by the surrounding environment and by the way in which human behaviors influence their surroundings

Traditionally, sociology focused on the study of issues such as social class, religion, gender and some other issues. However, the modern approach to sociology has expanded to include other topics such as health, economics, education, the Internet and more. There are three broad levels of study in sociology:

  • The staff (romantic love, religious faith and aging)
  • Society (crime and law, prejudice, poverty and wealth)
  • The global (war and peace, economic development)


Sociology is an ancient discipline that dates back to the times of the Greek philosopher known as Plato and the ancient Chinese master Confucius. Some argue that it is prior to Plato. The methods and survey techniques can be traced up to DominoNumday by 1086. Others argue that it was the Arabs who introduced the discipline nell’14 th century during the time of Ibn Khaldun, an Arab scholar from Tunisia. For some, he is the father of sociology.

Research methodologies

Sociologists emphasize the meticulous collection of data and facts and then analyze the data through established and appropriate techniques which in turn help us to understand the key social processes. The research methods used can be classified into two: qualitative and quantitative methods.


Qualitative methods are not based on concrete facts because they involve methods that can have a human prejudice. On the other hand, the quantitative methods are based on quantifiable and difficult to elaborate data with conclusions and explanations. An example of a qualitative method is the observation in which the researcher observes what a group of people is doing. The researcher may or may not participate in the activities of the observed group. Qualitative research methods can include the visualization of concrete data already collected such as those from a census or the conduct of one using proven techniques in order to collect accurate data.

All these methods have a goal in mind; that of providing illumination and understanding of the social dynamics of human societies. This information is particularly important for people who have dedicated their lives to providing solutions to social problems. These people include political personalities, politicians, planners, social workers, administrators and others. Plunging more deeply into issues that are normally taken for granted, sociology provides an even deeper understanding of human social life.

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