What Is Kabiyé language

Kabiyé (also Kabiye , Kabyé , Kabye ) is a Grusi language spoken mainly in northern Togo , and also by fewer people in Benin and Ghana . It is one of the two national languages of Togo.

The Kabiyé are also known as Lokpa (Lukpa) in Benin. Lamba and Yaka are dialects.

Status

Kabiye is one of the two national languages ​​of Togo (the other is Ewe ). As a national language it is promoted in the national media and – in the formal education sector -, since 1986 it has been an optional subject in school years 10 and 11. [ 1 ]

Studies

Missionary linguist Jacques Delord published Kabiye’s first descriptive grammar in 1976. [ 2 ] followed by Keziye Lébikaza’s descriptive grammar in 1999, [ 3 ] which remains the main reference work in Kabiye linguistics. There is also a Kabiye-French dictionary. [ 4 ] The language has been widely studied, counting on numerous works in several specific areas: comparative linguistics, [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] Discourse analysis, [ 9 ] [ 10] Contact languages, [ 11 ] Lexicology, [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ] Morphology [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [28 ] [ 29 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ] [ 32 ] [ 33 ] [ 34 ] [ 35 ] Phonology , [ 36 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ] Sociolinguistics, [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46] Syntax, [ 47 ] ,spelling, [ 48 ] [ 49 ] [ 50 ] [ 51 ] [ 52 ] Tonology, [ 53 ] [ 54 ] [ 55 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ] [ 58 ] [ 59 ] and verbal system . [ 60 ] [ 61 ] [ 62 ] [ 63] [ 64 ] [ 65 ] [ 66 ]

Publications

The first publications in Kabiye appeared in the 1930s. [ 67 ] [ 68 ] [ 69 ] In all, there are about 200 works in Kabiye, although not all are available or easy to find for sale. For an inventory until the turn of the century, see Pouwili, 1999. [ 70 ] Publications include two proverb books, [ 71 ] [ 72 ] folk tales, [ 73 ] [ 74 ] [ 75 ] [ 76 ] poetry [ 77 ]medical manuals, [ 78 ] [ 79 ] [ 80 ] [ 81 ] [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 84 ] agriculture manuals, [ 85 ] [ 86 ] Bible translations , [ 87 ] [ 88 ] political tracts, [ 89 ] [ 90 ] [ 91 ] religious treatment, [ 92 ] [93 ] a small novel <rref> Azoti, SB (2008). Paamaala: suye maɖʋ sɔsɔ. Kara: AFASA (Association des Femmes pour Alphabétisation, la Santé et les Activités génératrices de revenus). </ref> school books, [ 94 ] [ 95 ] and other teaching materials. [ 96 ] [ 97 ]

Phonology [ edit | edit source code ]

Consonants [ edit | edit source code ]

Lip Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Labio-Velar Glottal
Occlusive Lenis P t ʈ k k͡p
Fortis d
Fricative Lenis f s H
Fortis z
Africada
Approx. l j w
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ

Vowels [ edit | edit source code ]

Short vowels [ edit | edit source code ]

Previous Later
Not rounded Rounded
Root with advanced tongue | −ATR Root with advanced tongue | + ATR Root with advanced tongue | −ATR Root with advanced tongue | + ATR
Closed ɪ i ʊ u
Medial ɛ and ɔ The
Open The

Long vowels [ edit | edit source code ]

Previous Later
Not rounded Rounded Not rounded
Root with advanced tongue | −ATR Root with advanced tongue | + ATR Root with advanced tongue | −ATR Root with advanced tongue | + ATR Root with advanced tongue | −ATR Root with advanced tongue | + ATR
Closed ɪː ʊː ɯ̙ː ɯ̘ː
Medial ɛː and ɔː The ʌː ɤː
Open The ɑː

The non-rounded posterior vowel occurs only at the boundaries of morphemes.

Spelling [ edit | edit source code ]

Kabiye was first written in the 1930s, [ 98 ] [ 99 ] [ 100 ] but it was in the early 1980s that the Committee of Langue Nationale Kabiyè (now Académie Kabiyè ), an organ of Togo’s Ministry of Education, standardized spelling . Kabiye is written in modified Latin script based on the character inventory of the African reference alphabet. An alternative spelling, designed and promoted by RP Adjola Raphaël, is widely used among Catholics. [ 101 ] The following tables show grapheme-phoneme matches in standard spelling.

Consonants [ edit | edit source code ]

Lip Alveolar Retroflex Retroflex Palatal Velar Lip-velar Glottal
Stop Stop Lenis P p T t K k KP kp
Fortis B b D d Ɖ ɖ G g GB GB
Fricative Lenis F f S s H h
Fortis V v Z z
Africada Lenis C c
Fortis J j
Approx. L l Y y W w
Vibrant R r
Nasal M m N n Ñ ​​ñ Ŋ ŋ

The spelling contains a significant amount of sub-specification, since the 5 obstructing graphemes b , g , gb , v , j are superfluous from a strictly phonemic point of view.

The grapheme ⟨r⟩ is reserved for words of foreign origin.

Vowels [ edit | edit source code ]

Short vowels [ edit | edit source code ]

Previous Postererior
Not rounded Rounded
Root with advanced tongue | −ATR Root with advanced tongue | + ATR Root with advanced tongue | −ATR Root with advanced tongue | + ATR
Closed latin iota | Ɩ ɩ I i Ʋ | Ʋ ʋ U u
Medial Latin epsilon | Ɛ ɛ And is the open | Ɔ ɔ O o
Open A a

Long vowels [ edit | edit source code ]

Previous Later
Not rounded Rounded Not rounded
Root with advanced tongue | -ATR Root with advanced tongue | + ATR Root with advanced tongue | -ATR Root with advanced tongue | + ATR Root with advanced tongue | -ATR Root with advanced tongue | + ATR
Closed ƖƖ ɩɩ II ii ƲƲ ʋʋ Uu uu Latin gamma | ƖƔ ɩɣ Latin gamma | IƔ iɣ
Medial ƐƐ ɛɛ EE ee ƆƆ ɔɔ OO oo Latin range | ƐƔ ɛɣ Latin range | EƔ eɣ
Open AA aa Latin range | AƔ aɣ

 

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