buprofen is an anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs (NSAIDs) : like all NSAIDs, works by blocking the production of prostaglandins, molecules involved in the formation of inflammation . In particular, Ibuprofen blocks the activity of the cyclooxygenase enzymes Cox-1 and Cox-2.
What is Ibuprofen used for?
Given its properties against inflammation and pain , Ibuprofen is used to relieve headaches , neuralgia , menstrual cramps , musculoskeletal pains (e.g. stiff neck), traumatic ones (associated, for example, with bruises, sprains, muscle tears), postpartum and post-operative ones . It can also be prescribed in cases of arthrosis , rheumatoid arthritis , ankylosing spondylitis, scapulohumeral periarthritis, extrarticular rheumatism, myositis, low back pain, sciatica, radiculus-neuritis, fibrositis, tenosynovitis and Still’s disease.
In children, Ibuprofen can also be used as an antipyretic , to decrease or disappear the fever.
How is Ibuprofen taken?
Ibuprofen can be taken in the form of tablets or effervescent powder , always on a full stomach . The doses vary according to the age of the patient and the desired therapeutic effect: it is essential to follow the doctor ‘s instructions when prescribing or, if you are taking over-the-counter drugs based on this active ingredient, to the instructions on the leaflet.
In addition to the medicines to be taken orally , there are also ointments to be applied to the skin, solutions or powders for vaginal lavages, suppositories for rectal use and solutions for intramuscular injections .
Side effects of Ibuprofen
Taken in association with Acetylsalicylic Acid , Ibuprofen reduces its protective action against the heart . For the rest, keeping below the maximum daily dose of 1200 mg, the drug can be considered safe in the case of cardiovascular risk.
Recognized side effects include gastrointestinal problems such as:
- He retched
- difficulty in gastric or intestinal digestion
- dark stools due to the presence of partially digested blood
- hematemesis (vomiting consisting of blood)
- epigastralgia (pain in the upper and central area of the abdomen)
- abdominal cramps
- ulcerative stomatitis
- worsening of colitis and Crohn’s disease
- epigastric pain
- gastric heartburn
- bowel disease
- gastrointestinal bleeding
- peptic ulcers
Other disturbances are reported, such as:
- tinnitus and other hearing disorders
- heart failure
- rash and other rashes
- nail pigmentation
- angioedema (sudden appearance of an area of swelling of the skin, mucous membrane and submucosal tissues)
- aplastic anemia
- impaired liver function
- increase in total bilirubin
- vision problems
- difficult breathing
- aggravation of asthma
- dehydration and changes in salivation.
More rarely Ibuprofen intake has been associated with:
- aggravation of psoriasis
- changes in kidney function tests
- changes in the menstrual cycle
- absence of menstruation
- hemolytic anemia
- collagenous colitis
- difficulty concentrating
- inflammation of the duodenum
- blood in the urine
- acute enteritis
- Bullous erythema multiforme
- inflammation of the esophagus
- periorbital swelling and streptococcal invasive pathology.
- heart failure
- liver failure
- acute renal failure
- yellowish discolouration of the skin
- drug-induced aseptic meningitis
- liver necrosis
- papillary necrosis
- tubular necrosis
- decreased appetite
- reduction of hemoglobin and hematocrit
- mood swings
- dry eyes and dry mouth
- hepatorenal syndrome
- gingival ulcers
A study also suggested that NSAIDs may increase the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Contraindications and warnings on the use of Ibuprofen
Ibuprofen is contraindicated in cases of kidney failure, liver disease and pathologies of the gastrointestinal system (such as gastritis, ulcer and hemorrhoids with bleeding), respiratory diseases, allergic asthma and pregnancy (especially during the third trimester). Interactions with some drugs are also possible , in particular with:
- ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II antagonists (in case of impaired renal function)
- Acetylsalicylic acid and Fans in general
- some antidiabetics
- coumarin anticoagulants
- Cefuroxima and Fenobarbital
- oral corticosteroids
- Ginko Biloba and Kava Kava
- Lithium, Digoxin and Phenytoin