The Glucagon is a polypeptide hormone nature, produced by the endocrine portion of the pancreas (α cells of the pancreas Langerhans islets). It has hyperglycemic action, insulin antagonist (produced, instead, by β cells).
Taking Glucagon quickly lowers the level of glycogen in the blood and increases the blood sugar level ; these effects are caused by the activation of the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase and by the blockage of the enzyme glycogen synthetase, which result in the release of glucose. The emission of Glucagon is stimulated by states of hypoglycaemia : the greatest stimulus is given by fasting and prolonged medium-high physical activity.
What is Glucagon for?
The Glucagon is a hyperglycaemic hormone by the action , then antagonist ‘ insulin . Its use may be necessary in case of severe hypoglycaemic crisis, caused by an excessive administration of insulin or other hypoglycaemic drugs.
How is Glucagon taken?
Glucagon can be administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously .
Side effects of Glucagon
Side effects associated with the use of Glucagon are very rare. Among the most common are nausea and vomiting , especially in the case of dosages greater than 1 mg or rapid injection (carried out in less than 1 minute). Glucagon can also increase heart rate (tachycardia) . Hypersensitivity phenomena have rarely been recorded.
Contraindications and warnings on the use of Glucagon
The Glucagon does not affect the ability to drive the machinery . Since Glucagon does not cross the placental barrier, there are no known harmful effects on pregnancy, the health of the fetus and the newborn baby. In breastfeeding women, the quantity emitted after treatment of a hypoglycaemic crisis is extremely low; in addition, glucagon is deactivated in the digestive tract and cannot be absorbed in its integral form. Therefore, it has no metabolic effect in the infant. There is no contraindication to the use of Glucagon during pregnancy and breastfeeding .