Diffusion is the process in which atoms or molecules move from a high concentration region to a low concentration area. In most cases, the spread occurs in gases and liquids. During diffusion, the movement of matter continues until there is an even distribution. The movement pattern depends on the concentration gradient of the fluids or gases involved. The term diffusion derives from a Latin word “diffundere” which means “to spread”. In addition to diffusion, other ways in which substances move from one region to another include active transport and osmosis. The concept of diffusion involves many disciplines such as biology, physics, finance, economics, sociology and chemistry.
The false diffusion refers to the error that occurs when using the upwind differentiation formula of the calculation of multidimensional cases of diffusion by convection. The error is absent when the property flow is parallel to each main axis.
The dissemination process
There are two ways in which diffusion occurs: the phenomenological approach and the atomistic point of view. According to the phenomenological approach, diffusion occurs when a substance moves from a highly concentrated region to a low-concentration region, which is based on Fick’s law of diffusion. On the contrary, the atomistic view includes the diffusion as a result of a random walk of particles in a substance. Two scholars, Robert Brown and Albert Einstein, have devised this view. Brown is responsible for the Random Walk Theory, which he designed in 1827, while Einstein devised the atomistic properties of diffusion and the theory of Brownian motion.
Factors influencing the spread
Four main factors influence the diffusion of fluids. One is the concentration gradient. Higher concentration levels will lead to higher spread rates and vice versa. Second, temperature also influences diffusion, since it influences the kinetic property of matter. When temperatures are high, the speed of moving particles increases, leading to faster diffusion. Third, diffusion depends on the density of a gas or liquid. Whenever the diffuse substance has a lower density, it becomes lighter and can spread more rapidly. The density is also slightly affected by the particle size.
Examples of dissemination
An example of diffusion is observed in laboratory experiments. Every time the hydrogen sulfide compound is used, it produces a pungent odor. With time, everyone in the lab can smell the gas. This smell is proof of the spread of gas in the room. The gas will spread slowly in the laboratory until it reaches a state of equilibrium. Another common example is the food coloring used in the kitchen. When food coloring is mixed in water and then added to food, it spreads evenly throughout the food. Finally, when one sprays the perfume in a room, it spreads throughout the room, making it possible to smell the scent from anywhere in the room. The diffusion of the perfume is an example of gas diffusion into the atmosphere.