The Ceftriaxone is an antibiotic belonging to the group of third-generation cephalosporins; it has an in vitro structure and antimicrobial activity similar to those of Cefotaxima and Ceftizoxima .Since the half-life of this cephalosporin is between 6 and 8 hours , it can also be administered by injection once or twice a day.
From a molecular point of view it inhibits the synthesis of the bacterial wall: like the other cephalosporins, this antibiotic has the ability to bind to the transpeptidase enzymes that are necessary in order to create the bonds between the peptidoglycan chains, an essential polymer for the formation of the bacterial wall . Inhibition of transpeptidase activities impairs the stability of the bacterial wall, resulting in the death of growing bacterial cells.
For some of its intrinsic characteristics (the presence of the methoxy group), it has a natural resistance to the action of bacterial beta-lactamases, preserving its antibiotic activity even for penicillinase-resistant species.
What is Ceftriaxone used for?
It is used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria that are usually resistant to antibiotic therapy. It is mainly used in immunocompromised patients and following surgery. It is also used against meningitis and gonorrhea (even if caused by penicillinase-resistant strains).
How is Ceftriaxone taken?
It is administered by injection (powder and solvent for solution for injection intramuscularly or intravenously).
Known side effects of Ceftriaxone
The most frequent side effects, found especially in predisposed or particularly sensitive subjects, are:
- leukopenia ;
- anemia ;
Abnormalities in liver function:
- increase in serum transaminases (SGOT, SGPT);
- increased bilirubin ;
- hardening and brittleness at the injection site;
- feeling sick ;
- diarrhea ;
- abdominal pain
- urticaria ;
- headache ;
- feeling dizzy ;
- itching ;
- anaphylactic reactions;
Contraindications and warnings of Ceftriaxone
Maximum attention should be paid to administering this drug to premature and term infants up to the 28th day of age ; in patients with hypersensitivity to cephalosporins, penicillins or other antibiotics; in patients with jaundice or pathologies characterized by hyperbilirubinemia.
Since to date a sufficient number of studies have not been conducted to characterize its safety profile on the health of the fetus, this drug should be prescribed during the pregnancy phase only in strictly necessary cases and in any case always under strict medical supervision.The same can be said about breastfeeding and newborn health.