Brain drain is the informal terminology used to describe the flight of human capital or the loss of highly qualified or educated individuals from a particular geographical region, organization or industry. Generally, the brain drain refers to emigration from geographic regions. It is considered a social and economic problem because it leaves an area with a low-skilled and uneducated workforce, although it also has some positive effects. This article closely examines the causes, effects and types of brain drain occurring worldwide.
Causes of brain drainage
What causes a large population of talented and educated people to leave a particular country, region or city? The answer depends on a variety of factors, depending on where the brain drain is occurring. In general, the factors that contribute to this phenomenon are mainly divided into two categories: push factors and attraction factors.
One of the main reasons why highly qualified and educated people decide to leave their birthplace is less than desirable living conditions. This part of the workforce tends to leave due to high unemployment rates, economic crisis, low average wages, political instability, human rights violations and lack of personal freedom. These factors are considered push factors because they effectively push people out of their homes, forcing them to look for better opportunities elsewhere.
Brain drain pull factors are essentially the opposite of thrust factors. These are the situations found in the regions that receive highly qualified immigrants. The driving factors include: higher wages, better quality of life, growing economy, stable political environment, personal freedom and prestigious educational opportunities. These factors work to attract immigrants, pulling them out of their homelands.
Effects of brain drainage
The effects of the brain drain are twofold, leading to negative and positive influences on the economic and social situations both of the countries and of the sending and receiving regions. The sending regions (which are usually considered developing or underdeveloped economies) suffer most of the negative effects of the brain drain. This phenomenon influences the workforce, tax revenues, health conditions, educational opportunities and technological development capabilities within a particular country or region.
The negative effects of the brain drain occur mainly in the region that is losing its highly skilled workforce. Some economists believe that this trend causes labor shortages, although others oppose this theory.
When people leave work looking for economic opportunities elsewhere, the tax revenues they paid once are lost. This loss of income can interrupt the public budget and lead to a decline in the quality of public services.