The word “Anarchism” is composed of the word “Anarchy” with the suffix “ism”. The word “anarchy” comes from “anarcho”, a Greek word meaning “without authority”, a political philosophy that supports self-governing societies based on voluntary institutions. Often referred to as stateless societies, anarchism is negative about the idea of state, considering it useless, undesirable and harmful.
In a state, the opposition is central. In anarchism, however, this implies a hierarchical organization or an opposite authority in the conduct of human relations. Anarchism developed in the west before spreading around the world in the early 20th century.
Anarchy is usually considered an extreme left ideology with much anarchist economy and legal philosophy that goes against the authoritarian interpretations of communism or participatory economics. Instead of offering a fixed body of doctrine from a particular vision, anarchism flows and flows like a philosophy.
Other types of anarchism come in a chronological and theoretical sense. There are those that were created during the 19th century and those that came later. The former are classical anarchist schools of thought while the latter are post-classical schools. Beyond these factions, there is philosophical anarchism. This is an anarchist school of thought that embodies a theoretical position according to which the state has no moral legitimacy if it does not accept the imperative of revolution to get rid of it.
The pioneer socialist and the French political writer Pierre-Joseph Proudhon was the first to call himself an anarchist. He argued, in his controversial Qu’est-ce that the property (which is property) that the true laws of society had nothing to do with authority. He foresaw the emergence of a natural social order and the possible dissolution of authority. Proudhon distinguishes between ideal political possibilities and practical governance.
Mutual anarchism is apprehensive of reciprocity, federation, voluntary contract, free association and credit, and currency reform. The anarchism of collectivism, on the other hand, refers to revolutionary socialism. The collectivist anarchists defend collective property while opposing any private ownership of any means of production. Anarcho-communism is a theory according to which money, markets, state and private property are abolished, although respect for personal property is still maintained. Instead, there is a common ownership of the means of production, voluntary association, and their consumption is based on the principle “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs”. Individualist anarchism has different traditions in itself,
Green anarchism (also called eco-anarchism) emphasizes environmental issues, anarchophemism combines anarchism with feminism seeing patriarchy as a manifestation of involuntary coercion, anarcho-pacifism rejects violence in the struggle for social change and the teachings of a particular religion inspire religious anarchism.