Anarchism and communism are two distinct political ideologies with great theoretical influence around the world.
The anarchism is the ideology centered on the total elimination of all kinds of coercion.
In other words, this political current affirms that there should be no type of authority for the individual or society in general.
It also believes that the State is harmful and unnecessary for the functioning and life of society.
But the communism is a political and socio-economic ideology that aims to eradicate private property and, consequently, the struggle of social classes, in favor of an egalitarian society.
This political aspect was inspired by the theories and studies of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who published the work The Communist Manifesto in 1848.
The study known as Marxism strongly criticizes capitalism, defending a society free of class division.
In this sense, political theory believes that workers become owners of their own means of production.
The political and economic motivations of anarchism and communism are similar in some points, such as the end of the state and capitalism.
However, its theorists and defenders have always disagreed on the way forward to achieve their goals.
Below we explain these differences and how they affect public and private policies when put into practice.
The main differences between anarchism and communism
There are very basic differences between anarchism and communism.
Anarchism, for example, believes in the principle that a society should not have governmental authority to direct citizens’ thoughts and actions.
The followers of this political ideology do not believe in the State because they think that through education a new individual will be formed. In fact, many anarchists are responsible for creating pedagogical theories, such as libertarian education, adhered to in the early 20th century in Spain and France, such as the Modern School.
They believe that only through education will men be able to live without the need for laws and churches.
Thus, anarchists do not believe in the existence of the state. They also believe that there should be no higher authority to restrict freedom of thought and action.
The Communists believe that an effective government is run by a single party that is communist and made up of members of the working class.
In this logic, the State should have all resources, without the concept of private property, in order to eliminate the struggle of social classes.
In the table below we insert some of the main differences between anarchism and communism:
|Does not believe in the need for states and governments||Propagates the desire for a classless society ruled by communist parties|
|Individuals have the right to decide their quantity of production||Production is distributed without dividing classes or hierarchies of productive forces|
|Believes in internationalism without geographical boundaries||Believes in geographic states and specified boundaries|
|Rejects any type of political party and believes in individual freedom||Suggests leading communist parties with a focus on the working class, eliminating capitalism and building a classless society|
Anarcho-communism: concept and ideas
Also known as anarchist communism, free communism, libertarian communism and communist anarchism, it is a theory of anarchism that advocates the elimination of the state, capitalism, wage labor and private property .
Anarcho-communism was founded by Peter Kropotkin in the late 1800s. It is a strand of communist thought that works for the collective property and workers’ control of the men of production.