The weather , as we know, is the result of successive weather events over time. It is the behavior of the atmosphere. It is made up of some elements that dictate its characteristics, that is, that shape the different types of climate that exist around the world.The Climate Elements, as its name implies, are the phenomena that make up the climate. They are: temperature , air humidity , atmospheric pressure and solar radiation.
The temperature is the record of atmospheric heat and is usually measured in degrees Celsius (° C) or in other units that are used in other countries, such as Fahrenheit (° F) , and Kelvin (K). Thus, a high temperature value – 37ºC or 40ºC, for example – means it is very hot, while lower temperatures mean it is colder.
The humidity is the amount of water present in atmospheric air in vapor form. It is divided into absolute humidity, which is the total amount of water in the air, and relative humidity , which is the humidity of water present in the air compared to what is needed to start raining.
The atmospheric pressure is the “weight” that the atmosphere has on our heads and on the terrestrial surface, being measured in millibars (mb) , or other units of measure. Generally, when a weather factor causes atmospheric pressure to rise, temperatures become higher.
The solar radiation is the heat produced by the sun and received by Earth. It is very important to keep our planet warm and thus to control temperatures to maintain life. However, not all radiation received by our planet reaches the surface, most of it is absorbed or reflected by the atmosphere.
Since our planet has a certain inclination on its axis, not all parts of the earth’s surface receive the same amount of solar radiation, which allows the so-called thermal zones of the Earth to exist . The process of reflecting solar radiation from the surface to the atmosphere and from the atmosphere back to the surface is called the greenhouse effect .
As we can see, climate elements form the basic attributes that make up the climate of different parts of the world. The presence or absence of these elements is conditioned to several other phenomena, called climatic factors , which include relief, vegetation, altitude and others