Water cycle

Water Resource Hydrological Cycle

We will explain one of the most important biogeochemical cycles of nature, in which there are minimal chemical reactions such as the water cycle. This plays a very important role for the development and maintenance of life on planet earth.

What is the water cycle?

In this sense, we describe what the hydrological cycle of water is ; its main characteristics, phases or stages, its importance for the planet in general and the activities that alter this natural cycle.

Thus, the water cycle is that permanent hydrological and transformation process in which water enters into circulation with the different compartments of the hydrosphere . In itself, it is a terrestrial cycle in which the phases of water are repeated in the same order, in a continuous time and where it passes through various states such as liquid, solid and gas.

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Therefore, the main characteristics of the water cycle include :

It is a process of water recycling, continuous circulation, it is fundamental for the maintenance of life on earth, the sun is the main responsible for this cycle, constant interaction with ecosystems, it is divided into internal cycle and the external cycle, it It consists of 5 phases or stages, it begins with evaporation from the oceans, transports substances and among other very significant features.

Main phases or processes of the water cycle:


This phase starts from the water of the oceans that are evaporated by energy or sunlight, causing it to change from a liquid to a gaseous state when the air rises and the water vapor rises to the highest part of the atmosphere.

Likewise, due to the evo-transpiration of plants, sweating of animals, sublimation of the frozen surface such as glaciers or the banquisa.

Condensation :

When the water is transformed into steam and rises to the atmosphere where it condenses in the clouds and finally precipitation occurs in drops of water on the earth.


Air currents cause clouds to collide, accelerate condensation and drops of water in solid form such as snow or hail and liquid like rain fall on the ground.


When the water precipitated on the ground by the runoff penetrates the ground, going to underground surface and finally it is returned by the evaporation and transpiration of the plants.


Different means by which liquid water flows down the surface of the earth.

Underground circulation:

Depending on the severity of the surface runoff, in the vadose area with karstified rocks downhill and the aquifers in interstitial water.


It occurs when the snow goes into a liquid state due to the thaw.


Process in which the liquid water becomes an ice solid state by increasing its pressure.

Importance and Benefits of the water cycle:

For all the above, the importance of the water cycle is that it is a renewable and very abundant natural resource with 71% in liquid form on the surface of the earth.

Without this cycle, life on the planet is not possible, since its benefits are over terrestrial, aquatic, forest and desert ecosystems. Also different landscapes, biodiversity of living beings, transport of minerals, oxygen, obtaining food, key in photosynthesis, purification, climate regulation and for human life.

In conclusion, the water cycle is a biogeochemical process where water is in total movement through the earth and changing its temperature from one state to another.

Without this process, the hot zones would take longer to cool, the water would stagnate in the oceans and the effects would be alarming for life in general on the planet.

Undoubtedly, this cycle is being affected by various unsustainable human activities such as environmental pollution . In addition to illegal mining, overexploitation of natural resources, deforestation and forest fires. Also solid waste, alteration of the phenomenon of greenhouse effect, global warming and changes in weather patterns that become extreme natural phenomena and ecological imbalances.


by Abdullah Sam
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