Vegetative and Generative

Vegetative propagation

Vegetative propagation is a way of breeding plants without preceded by the fusion of sex cells. Vegetative propagation is divided into two namely natural and artificial vegetatives.

1.  Natural Vegetative Propagation

Natural vegetative plant development can be done by means or tools as follows:

      • Spores

Spores are one or several cells (can be haploid or diploid) wrapped in a protective layer. These cells are dormant in nature and only grow in environments that meet certain requirements, which differ from each species. The function of these spores is as a means of dispersion (dispersion) similar to seeds, although different when viewed in terms of anatomy and evolution. Examples of plants that breed with spores are ferns, mosses and fungi .

      • Shoots

Buds are parts of plants that have just sprouted from sprouts or buds that are above the surface of the soil or media. These shoots can be from stems, young leaves, flower candidates or fruit candidates . In terms of plant physiology, shoots can also mean all parts of plants that do not include roots, that is, parts of plants that tend to have negative geotropism (or positive heliotropism). Examples of plants that breed with shoots are banana , sugar cane, and bamboo.

      • Adventitious Shoots

Adventitious shoots are shoots that grow in certain parts of plants such as shoots that grow on the roots or leaves. Examples of plants that breed by adventitious shoots are breadfruit , duck duck, and cypress.

      • Stem bulbs

Stem tubers (tuber cauligenum) are tubers that are formed from stems or modified stem structures, for example geragih (stolo) or rhizome (rhizoma). Stem tubers can produce shoots or roots, so they are often used as vegetative propagation material by humans. Stem tubers are produced by several species of Solanaceae (the best known are potato tubers ) and Asteraceae (dahlia tubers and topinambur). Examples of plants that breed by stem tubers are potatoes, yam , yam and sweet potatoes.

      • Lapis Bulbs

Bulbs are a type of tuber that is formed from several piles (base) of leaves arranged in a rosette format. Layered tubers are considered different from other tubers because they do not accumulate carbohydrates in the form of polysaccharides. The growth of the tuber layer can occur due to the gathering of fluid in the cells. Examples of plants that multiply by layer bulbs are tulips, onions , garlic, onions and lilies.

      • Root Stay (Rhizoma)

In botanical rhizome or rhizome has the meaning as a modification of plant stems that grow under the surface of the soil and can produce new shoots and roots from the segments. Examples of plant groups that have residual roots are the Intersection (Zingiberaceae) and ferns (Pteridophyta).

Rizoma generally has additional functions besides basic functions such as stems. The most common is that it can store certain metabolic products. Rhizomes store reserves of essential oils and alkaloids which are very good treatment. Rizoma that enlarges and stores food reserves (in the form of starch) are called tubers (stem tubers). Examples of plants that breed using live roots are galangal , ginger and turmeric .

      • Billing

Geragih or stolon is a modification of a stem that grows sideways and in its segments grows into a new plant. Geragih is a branch that undergoes a change in shape and function addition. Geragih generally have a number of books and a number of shoots that will emerge shoots into new plants. Examples of plants that multiply by means of gotu kola are gotu kola, water hyacinth, puzzles, and strawberries .

2.  Artificial Vegetative Development

Artificial vegetative propagation of plants can use the following methods:

      • Depositing

Breeding with cuttings can be done by planting certain parts of the plant without waiting for new roots to appear first. When compared with other artificial vegetative propagation methods, this cutting method is the easiest method. Plant propagation by cuttings can use stems (wood) called stem cuttings, and some use leaves called cuttings.

Examples of plants that can be propagated by stem cuttings are cassava, sugar cane, banyan, bamboo, betel, yam and others. While plants that can breed by using leaf cuttings are the duck cocor plant and the tongue-in-law plant.

      • Negotiation

In addition to cuttings, artificial vegetative propagation can also be done by negotiation or by bending the branches of the plant to the ground and then burying the branches of the plant with soil. Examples of plants that can be propagated by bowing or bowing are grapes , apples and jasmine.

      • Transplantation

Grafting is a way of propagation by making the branches of plant stems rooted. This method is usually done on dicotyledonous and woody fruit plants. Examples of plants that can be propagated by grafting quite a lot, such as mango plants, water guava, oranges , brown and others.

      • Connection

Connecting is combining the lower stem and upper stem of two similar plants. The purpose of this connection is to combine the superior characteristics of the two plants to get one plant that has superior properties. Examples of plants that can be joined are mangoes, coffee and durian.

      • Grafting

Grafting is a way to improve the quality of plants by attaching cuttings of tree bark from the upper stem to a slice of the other tree bark from the rootstock so that they grow united into new plants. Grafting aims to combine the good properties of each crop that is inoculated so as to get good plant varieties.

The advantages and disadvantages of Vegetative Breeding


    1. The plant’s youth is relatively short.
    2. Plants reproduce faster.
    3. Can be applied to plants that do not produce seeds.
    4. Better properties in the parent can be derived.
    5. Can grow on soil that has a shallow soil layer because it has a shallow root system.


    • The root system is less strong because it does not have a taproot.
    • Inheriting the mother’s ugly nature in addition to the good nature of the parent.
    • The cost of procuring seeds is expensive.
    • The time needed is relatively long.
    • Difficult to get plants in large numbers from one parent tree

Generative breeding

Generative plant breeding is a way of breeding plants by means of mating or breeding experienced by seed plants through pollination. This generative breeding process requires male and female genitals. Examples of plants that breed generatively are mango , rice, corn and others.

Pollination is the event of the fall of pollen on the pistil’s head. Pollen or pollen is a generative means of propagation and propagation of flowering plants. Pollen is a modification of sperm cells. Cytologically, pollen is a cell with three nuclei, each of which is called a vegetative nucleus, generative nucleus I, and generative nucleus II. Cells in pollen are protected by two layers (called intine for the inside and exine in the outside) to reduce the risk of dehydration.

Pollination on plants can be assisted by outsiders such as humans, animals, water , and wind.

        1. Examples of plants that pollinate assisted by humans are salak , vanilla
        2. Examples of plants whose pollination is assisted by animals (insects, bats, birds) are honey-producing flowers and flowers that emit aroma, for example frangipani, durian .
        3. Examples of plants whose pollination is assisted by water are plants whose habitat is in water, for example hydrilla.
        4. Examples of plants whose pollination is assisted by the wind are plants with dry and light pollen as well as small flower crowns, such as corn and grasses.

Type of Pollination based on the origin of the pollen:

        • Autogamy or pollination itself is a process of pollination, in which pollen falls on the flower pistil itself.
        • Geitonogamy or neighbor pollination is a process of pollination, in which pollen falls on the heads of other flower buds but is still in one of these plants.
        • Alogamy or cross-pollination is a process of pollination, in which pollen falls to the pistil of another flower that has a different plant but the plant is still one type.
        • Hybrid or hybrid pollination is a process of pollination, in which pollen falls on the heads of other flower buds with different types of plants.

Examples of Generative Breeding

      1. Conjugation

Conjugation is a transfer of genetic material (plasmid F + in bacteria and micronucleus in Protozoa) from one individual to another individual. This mechanism of exchange of genetic material can occur in bacteria and some protozoa. Gamete integration occurs in one individual. Morphologically, the sex is unknown, therefore the individuals involved are referred to as positive (+) and negative (-) individuals.

The process of conjugation begins with the formation of files that move close together in both individuals. Cells that are close together then form a bulge where at the ends of the two the bumps that touch each other merge and form a conjugate channel. It is through this channel that protoplasm flows from one cell to another. The two fused plasma, called plasmogamy. In bacteria then transfer of plasmids from one bacterium to partner bacteria. Whereas in protozoa, such as Paramecium, a two-way (swapped) micronucleus transfer process takes place.

      1. Isogamy

Isogamy (Isogamy) is a union of two gametes which are morphologically no different, ie undifferentiated in macro and microgamy. Isogamet is generally from minus or plus strains. But for example the Physarum slime mold, one isogamet can be united with other gametes as long as both are genetically different at all three polymorphic loci.

      1. Anisogamy

Anisogamy (Anisogamy) is a condition that occurs due to the fusion of gametes of different sizes and / or motility. In oogamy, the gametes differ in these two properties. It seems that sperm often gives a single centriole to the zygote that forms.


Strengths and weaknesses of Generative Plant Propagation


      • The plants produced have a strong root system.
      • Costs incurred more
      • Plant life will be longer.
      • Can produce new varieties, namely by crossing.


      • The new plants produced do not necessarily have the same characteristics as the parent.
      • New varieties that emerge are not necessarily better varieties.
      • Longer fruiting time.
      • The quality of plants is only known after fruiting plants.


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