It is very important to know that producing a text is something important for a lifetime, as we are always writing, whether it is answering questions in the school handouts of any subjects or writing a post on social networks. Therefore, in addition to being aware of grammatical rules, you must know the textual types and what are the genres that each has.
First, it is necessary to know what these two terms are and how they differ:
The textual type is related to the characteristics that a text has, how is its writing, what are its properties, the structure and the form to be followed, what are the verbal tenses that can be assumed, so that these characteristics in common text can be grouped into types.
And the textual genre is related to the peculiarities of each text, subdividing the types into different small genres.
See below the text types most commonly charged in competitions and entrance exams, in addition to the school and academic environment, they are:
1 – The essay-argumentative text:
In this type, controversial topics are usually explored through the writer’s point of view, however, it is necessary to write only in 3rd person, what does this mean? We should never put expressions like “in my opinion”, “I think”, or any other expression that refers to the one who writes. Therefore, it is necessary to use forms that refer to ‘he (s)’, so that the ‘I’ distances itself from the text, giving more credibility to the selected arguments.
This text should basically present: an introduction with the thesis that will be explored according to the proposed theme; the development with the exploration of the arguments to support the presented thesis; and, finally, a conclusion, in which it is necessary to present an intervention proposal to the theme.
Within this textual type we have some examples of textual genres, which are: journalistic articles, reviews, scientific articles, monographs, master’s dissertations and doctoral theses and the famous ENEM essay.
2 – The descriptive text:
In this textual type, facts, objects, places and characters involved are described. Usually, these texts end up having many adjectives, since it is exposing things and people. Unlike the essay text, it is possible to write a text of this type describing something or someone in the third person or talking about yourself in the first person.
As an example, we have the following text genres: news, blogs, diaries and personal reports, biography and autobiography, menus, resumes, among others.
3 – The narrative:
In this textual type, facts are narrated through stories that involve characters in a certain time and space. Usually, this text has a climax between development and conclusion, which presents the outcome of the narration. It is possible to write a text of this type in 1st person, that is, with a narrator who participates in the story, or in 3rd person, with the narrator distanced.
As examples of textual genres, we have: chronicles, fables, legends, among others.
4 – Expository Text
In this textual type, it is necessary to present the idea of the proposed theme. Usually, this theme is explored through information, definitions and description of a specific theme. Its use is common in school and academic environment.
Among the examples of textual genres, we can mention: lectures, conferences, seminars and even entries from dictionaries or encyclopedias.
5 – Instructional Text
In this type of text, instructions and guidelines are presented on certain things, such as manuals and recipes. Usually they are written in the imperative way, that is, it indicates an order, a request or advice.
Within this textual type we have some examples of textual genres, they are: recipes, package inserts, instruction manuals, advertisements, among others.
Understanding text types and their genres not only helps in the production of good texts, but also in the understanding and interpretation of others, which ends up bringing more foundation to always get a grade 10. Therefore, mastering them, along with the grammar at the tip of the tongue , you will be prepared to write several essays.