We have many textual genres present in the language and it is very important to master each of them, both to interpret them and to create them. The summary is a good example, this genre has its specific characteristics of a type of writing, it is always highly demanded in the school and academic environment, in addition to being your best study ally, let’s see what they are.
The abstract is a text that should summarize the main ideas presented by the author so that you must condense its essential structure. To elaborate it, it is necessary, first, to read, decode, understand and interpret a text in order to summarize it. It is also necessary to keep in mind what its purpose is, whether for school or academic work, or to prepare for tests and texts production of different selection processes.
We can cite 3 types of abstracts: the indicative , the one that presents only the main points of the text; the informative is the one that informs about the text read exposing the data and conclusions; and the critical summary (review) is one that presents an analysis of text interpretation bringing their opinions on the text read. Here, we will talk about the indicative summary, note its main characteristics:
a) present clearly and objectively the main ideas contained in the text;
b) not making a judgment of opinion, as this text does not present interpretative aspects, only comprehending a text, differently from the review;
c) respect the order of the information brought; and
d) not having a copy of long passages of the original text.
When designing this genre, it is important to follow the following steps:
read the text to be summarized in order to understand the main ideas, identifying what happened in the story, which are the characters involved, how, when and where it happened;
mark the main terms of the text and make notes, if necessary, on each paragraph of the text to be summarized;
start writing the summary when you no longer have to consult the text, as it is the sign that you have understood it;
reread the text, checking if it is clear and objective, analyzing if it is in accordance with what was read and expressed by the author.
These steps must be followed along with the application of three techniques:
1) Generalization: consists of synthesizing the elements of the sentences, such as:
A sentence like: Maria ate beets, zucchini and carrots for dinner.
It can be summarized in: Maria ate vegetables for dinner
2) Deletion: consists of deleting unnecessary parts to understand what is essential to the text, for example:
A sentence like: Maria earns very well, she earns commission plus the right to food vouchers, health insurance and transportation vouchers.
It can be summed up in: Maria wins well.
3) Construction: replace a sequence of facts with the main one, as in the example:
A sentence like: Maria went to the market to buy rice, beans and mixes and made a delicious lunch today.
It can be summed up in: Maria made lunch today.
Keep this recipe in mind and you will be prepared to make a summary to organize the ideas of a text while studying a subject to prepare for exams, entrance exams and competitions, or write a great summary when requested by your school teachers or college.