Types of Forest Types According to Function, Tree Type, and How it Happens

Green earth is identical to the natural appearance of trees and forests. Earth indeed chose a fairly large forest area. There are also many kinds of forest types in the world. To find out the type of forest, we can differentiate it based on many things.

Forest types can be distinguished based on several things. This time, we will look at forest types according to their functions, forest types according to tree types, forest types according to how they occur, forest types according to place, forest types according to their climate and forest types according to their purpose.

Chapter List 

Forest type according to function

When viewed according to function, forests can be divided into four types, namely protected forests, nature reserve forests, production forests and tourism forests. The following explanation.

1 # Protection Forest

Protection Forest is a type of forest whose function is to protect or preserve land and water systems that exist in an area. So, if existing protected forests are cut down, then the land around the area will be susceptible to erosion . As a result, forest water that seeps into the ground becomes very little.

This can also make the springs in the area dry up and the surface of the ground water will be deeper. Another possibility, is that it can cause drought, or vice versa become a flood.

2 # Nature Reserve Forest

Forest nature reserve is a type of forest in the form of an area that has special characteristics so that it is specifically intended for the protection of the living environment or protecting certain types of plants and ecosystems, and certain animals.

The nature reserve consists of nature reserves and wildlife reserves. Nature reserve forests are designated specifically to protect various plants because they have unique natural conditions so that these unique plants can develop naturally in their ecosystems, while wildlife reserves are specifically intended for the protection of various animals with their forest areas having their own unique characteristics in the form of uniqueness and diversity of species animals so that the animals’ survival can be fostered better in their natural or natural habitat.

Please refer to:  Distribution of Fauna in Indonesia

3 # Forest Tourism

Forest Tourism is a type of forest that is maintained with special functions for the benefit of tourism or new tourism. This tourism forest can be a tourism park, a new park and a marine park.

Taman Wisata itself is a type of tourism forest with a distinctive and beautiful natural panorama, has a vegetable, animal and natural beauty with a distinctive style so that it can be utilized in the context of recreation and culture.

New Park is a form of tourism forest in which there are a variety of new animals that live and allow for regular hunting for recreational purposes.

Marine Park is a marine or offshore area that still exists within the boundaries of Indonesia’s marine territories, and in it there are empty rocks or unique marine life and the conditions allow it to be used as a recreational destination.

4 # Production Forest

Production Forest is a forest area whose function is to take the results, or as a producer of forest products, such as wood or non-timber, wood and medicine industries, and so on.

Forest Types Based on Tree Types

When viewed according to the type of tree that lives in it, forests can be divided into two groups, namely homogeneous forests and heterogeneous forests.

A # Homogeneous Forest

Homogeneous forest is a type of forest that has similar plants. Typically, this homogeneous forest is an artificial forest that is intentionally intended for certain purposes, such as for reforestation, afforestation, or industrial expansion needs. For example, there are teak forests, pine forests, eucalyptus forests and pine forests.

B # Heterogeneous Forest

Heterogeneous forest is a type of forest whose plant types vary. Examples of homogeneous forests are jungle forests, as well as protected forests and nature reserves as well as heterogeneous forests.

In general, heterogeneous forests are mostly located in tropical regions with high rainfall such as in Africa, Central America, South America, Southeast Asia and Northeast Australia. Most of these forests have tall, broad-leaved trees. In the territory of Indonesia, heterogeneous forests are found on the islands of Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan and Irian Jaya.

Forest Type Based on Process

If viewed according to the process of occurrence or formation, the forest can be divided into two groups, namely native or natural forests and artificial forests.

1 # Original Forest or natural forest

Original forest is a forest that occurs naturally, without human assistance. Examples of natural forests such as jungle.

2 # Artificial Forest

Artificial forest is a forest which is the process of occurrence because it was deliberately created by humans. Such forests usually consist of only one type of tree, and are intentionally made for a specific purpose. For example, such as teak forests, eucalyptus forests and other forests that are deliberately created for economic purposes.

However, for mangrove forests or mangrove forests, they are generally natural forests, although there are also some mangrove forests that are intentionally made by humans. The purpose of making natural mangrove forests is usually to protect the coast from erosion or abrasion and other hazards that are often caused by waves or ocean currents.

Forest Types Based on Location

If viewed based on the place, this forest type can vary. Forests that grow in the tropics are usually named after the place name. Because, forests there generally can grow in various places because of high rainfall.

For example, there are swamp forests which are forests that grow in swampy areas, coastal forests which are forests that exist in coastal areas, mountain forests in mountainous regions and so on.

Forest Types Based on Climate

When viewed according to climate, forests can be divided into the following groups:

A # Tropical Rain Forest

Tropical rain forests are forests in the wet tropics that have the highest and highest rainfall throughout the year.

Characteristics of plants found in tropical rain forests are the size of tall trees, broadleaf, always green and a large number of species. This forest is rich in vertebrate and invertebrate animals.

Some examples of this tropical rainforest can be found in Central and South America, Northeast Australia, Africa and also in the Southeast Asia region.

B # Tropical Forest Season

Tropical rainforests are commonly found in areas with wet tropical climates, but with long dry seasons. Trees in the forests of this tropical season will generally shed their leaves in the dry season. Examples of tropical season forests are in the regions of India and Southeast Asia, and also include Indonesia.

C # Medium Climate Rain Forests

Moderate climate rain forests are giant forests that can be found in areas with moderate climate and with high rainfall. This type of forest is commonly found in Australia and along the Pacific coast of North America and California to the state of Washington. The temperate climate rain forest in Australia is the forest with the highest trees in the world.

D # Tropical Mountains Forest

Tropical Mountains Forests are similar to temperate climate rainforests. It’s just that the structure and other characteristics are very different. Tropical mountain forests are found in mountainous regions in the tropics.

E # Medium-sized rainforests that are always green

Climate rain forests that are always green can be found in areas with moderate climate. This type of forest is widely spread in the United States and Europe where the region has a continental climate.

F # Medium Deciduous Forest

Deciduous Climate Forests Medium can be found in areas that have a moderate continental climate, but are rather wet and have a rainy season when summer, and harsh winters.

Trees that dominate the deciduous temperate forest areas are generally trees with broad leaves, which shed their leaves in winter. We can find forests like this in the United States , Chile, Europe, East Asia, and Central America.

G # Taiga

Taiga is a type of forest in which various types of conifers grow, especially in the coldest areas in the forest climate. The largest taiga is found in North America, Europe and Asia.

H # Moss Forest

Moss forest is a unique form of tropical mountain community, with a different structure from taiga. This moss forest is found in areas with a height of about 2500 meters or more. Characteristics of the moss forest can be seen from the dwarf trees and overgrown with moss and lichens.

I # Sabana

Savanna is a tropical grassland area with large trees. in general, savanna forests are in transitional areas between forests and grasslands. Many savannahs can be found in Australia and Brazil.

J # Desert

Desert is a land area on which there is no vegetation of any kind, except for a few cactus species. Deserts usually have a very hot climate with high temperatures and low rainfall so that not many plants are able to survive in the desert. Only a few types of cactus are able to live in desert regions.

Forest Types Based on Purpose

Types are seen according to their purpose, then forests can be classified into several forms, including:

  • Conservation Forests and National Parks, forests are created with the aim of conservation as well as national parks.
  • Limited Production Forests and Permanent Production Forests, are made to extract their products.
  • Protection Forest, created with the aim of protecting certain ecosystems.
  • Forest Conversion, created with the aim of conversion.

This is the information that portal-ilmu.com can provide about the types of forest which are based on various factors. Hopefully this article is useful.

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