Tile. Marble , stone or ceramic plate , decorated, smooth or almost always sufficient, and generally square, it is of different sizes that is applied to wall coverings, tiles , slabs, etc.
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- 1 History of the tiles
- 2 Uses of tiles
- 3 Types of tiles by the place of decoration
- 1 Floor tiles
- 2 Wall tiles
- 3 Decorative tiles
- 4 Islamic mosaics
- 4 Types of tiles by the material used
- 1 Stone tiles
- 2 Terrazzo tile
- 3 Porcelain stoneware tile
- 4 Metal tile
- 5 marble tile
- 6 Ceramic tile
- 5 Source
The tiles were developed as a product of ceramics , believed to have arisen as an alternative use to broken ceramics, or to be an independent invention. The tiles have been used for over 4,000 years by Romans, Persians, Greeks, Babylonians, and many other cultures.
Uses of the tiles
Tiles are often used to cover walls , with extensions that can range from a few pieces to the complex mosaics seen in older buildings. Most of them are made of ceramic , with a fine enamel finish, which is achieved after a baking process. You can also get, among the materials for its elaboration, elements such as different types of stone , glass and cement . In most cases, a tile is baked several times to achieve a finished glazed , shiny and smooth to the touch.
Types of tiles by the place of decoration
Commonly, they are made of ceramics, porcelain, clay and stone. These can be painted and enameled. They are fixed to the floor using a mortar that is a mixture of lime or cement , which acts as a binder, sand and water , which when dried, acquires a very hard constitution, but less than that of concrete , which allows the transfer of weight and heat through the entire mosaic .
Ceramic tiles are thin plates generally used for covering walls and floors. They are made from clay compositions and other inorganic raw materials, which are subjected to milling and / or kneading, are molded and are then dried and cooked at a temperature sufficient to acquire the required properties in a stable manner.
Ceramic tiles can be either unglazed (UGL) or glazed (GL). Unglazed tiles undergo a single firing; glazed tiles receive a vitrifiable covering between a first and a second firing (double firing) or before the only firing (single firing).
The names and descriptions that follow bear in mind the usable objective criteria, technical, tariff or other, as well as the most widely used commercial terminology. But there are no standardized or generally accepted definitions or names for the different types of ceramic tiles, so when using the proposed names it may be necessary to make the necessary details, particularly in cases where this is noted.
While the ancient wall tiles of various Roman buildings were extensive and artistically crafted, today’s manufactured tile tends to be smaller and less elaborate. In the Spanish language the word ceramics is used, when referring to tiles, since once made in a certain area, it loses its singularity and is called ceramics: the ceramic on the wall is an example of the use it is given when refers to tiles attached to a wall. The same happens when they are located on the floor.
The work of decorative tiles takes the name of mosaics and can be done on the floors, walls and ceiling of a building. Although this decorative work was widely known and practiced in the ancient world (as evidenced by magnificent Islamic structures), it perhaps reached its greatest expression during the period of Islamic conquest.
Some places in Europe , especially in Portugal , have an ancient tradition of mosaic in buildings that continues to this day. Certain tile shapes, the most rectangular possible, can be folded to cover a surface without leaving spaces in between and can be spread over large surfaces.
Perhaps due to Muslim law rejecting religious icons and images in favor of more abstract and universal representations of the divine, the decorative mosaic was considered by many to have reached its highest point of expression and detail during the Islamic period . Palaces, public buildings, and public roads were heavily decorated with mosaics, often armed with amazing complexity. The influence and degree of the spread of Islam over several centuries in Europe, makes this artistic tradition to be carried forward, finding it expressed in gardens and courtyards in Malaga in Spain as in other European cities.
Types of tiles by the material used
The stone tiles are often used mostly outdoors, but also can be used indoors and in areas where there is much movement of people (because of its resistance because it does not suffer wear noticeable with the passage of time). They give a rustic look to the room and are very resistant.
Terrazzo is an imitation of stone. It is easy to clean and is a very hard material that withstands inclement weather quite well. It is currently in disuse compared to other more modern materials.
Porcelain stoneware tile
The porcelain stoneware is made based clay material, hard, strong and little porous. Its price is high compared to other materials. It cleans easily and supports any cleaning product.
This type of material is very little used. They are used in areas that will suffer especially with chemicals because it is easy to clean. It is a very hard and shiny material.
Marble is a limestone, porous and quite delicate. Its price is high compared to other materials. It is difficult to clean, since being a porous material it absorbs liquids quite easily, leaving marks. They are also easily scratched and do not support any cleaning product. The advantage is that it is a very decorative and beautiful material, and it provides a comfortable feeling, since it keeps the heat very well.
Ceramic is the most widely used material, since it is marketed with different finishes, designs and styles. It is made up of clays, fluxes, silica , coloring products and other materials. It is a very hard and resistant material, depending on the thickness. It resists cleaning products and scratches very well, they are also waterproof.