The Nature and Scope of Basic Natural Sciences (IAD)

The Nature and Scope of Basic Natural Sciences (IAD)

    Humans are gifted by God in the form of five senses that can receive stimuli from the natural surroundings, and with their minds they can respond to natural phenomena that become an experience. Because humans have a curiosity or curiosity about everything that exists in nature, then with that experience he develops methods of thinking from the next era so that the experience accumulates from era to era.

Experience is one of the formation of knowledge, namely a collection of facts. That experience will continue to increase as long as humans are on this earth and pass on that knowledge to the next generation. In essence, basic natural science is not a science that stands alone, but is a collection of knowledge about basic concepts in the field of science and technology (science and technology). So basic amiah cannot stand alone without other sciences.


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Natural science or often called natural science (natural science) is knowledge that examines the phenomena in the universe, including on the face of the earth formed concepts and principles. Basic natural science (IAD) only studies essential basic concepts and principles. In fact, we are already familiar with this scientific discipline, because it can happen anywhere, anytime, and in any form.

From the explanation above, it can be concluded that Basic Natural Sciences (IAD) is a science that examines the phenomena of the universe, including those that occur on this earth. Basic Natural Sciences can also be said to be the initial concept of the formation of Natural Sciences (IPA) and all of its derivatives, such as Biology, Physics, and Chemistry.

IAD is relative and can change according to the progress of human civilization. According to Abdulah Aly and Eny Rahmah (2006: V) “Basic Natural Science is a collection of knowledge about basic concepts in the field of Natural Sciences (IPA) and technology”. So that a concept and principle and scientific method are formed which are based on:

  1. Problem Finding, where there is a problem that we find empirically makes us start thinking radically. To find how to solve the problem by setting a clear scope and boundaries so that it will make it easier for us to find solutions to problems in formulating the problem framework
    2. Formulation of the problem framework In this case it aims to provide (describe) the problem to be clearer from the previous. As for the important emphasis on this second step, we will identify the factors involved in the problem so that the symptoms we are studying will manifest (visible).
    3. Hypothesis, this business hypothesis provides a temporary explanation (answer) regarding the causal relationship binding the factors forming the framework of the problem above. And in essence this hypothesis is the result of an inductive – deductive reasoning by using past knowledge that we admit to be true.
    4. Experiment (Hypothesis Testing), In this section the effort to collect facts has been obtained. If the facts in the empirical world have been tested for the truth of the hypothesis, because it is based on real facts. And if it is not proven, then the hypothesis will be rejected so that other hypotheses will be put forward until we find a certain hypothesis that is supported by the facts. Because the process of proving the hypothesis is not very easy and fast.
    5. Theory Various steps of the scientific method have been carried out in order to find a theory. Broadly speaking, this theory can be interpreted as a theoretical explanation of a particular phenomenon.

    The word human in the Qur’an is found in many ways, all of which have different interpretations. Among them are the caliph, al-insan, al-ins, annas, abdullah, al-abdu, an-nafs, and al-basyar. Meanwhile, the mission of humans created by their God is as caliph, worship, and imarah. In the materialist world, humans can be called homo educandum, homo educabel, homo faber, homo sapiens, monodualist or dualistic beings, monopluralists, and homo religious. That’s a word that shows that the perception of humans always depends on the scientific affiliation that is owned by someone.

    ” seems like the word is an empty message, but it could be a common thing). As explained earlier, human curiosity continues to develop through observation and sensory experience so that they are able to find what they want, but because humans are creatures that are not easily satisfied with what they already know, they often find answers that cannot be a problem. solving and not satisfying himself. In ancient times they often tried to find answers by inventing language to satisfy themselves with natural phenomena that their five senses captured. For example, what is lightning? Actually they can not answer the question, but for satisfaction they try to find answers that if they can satisfy both themselves and others, so they answer that the lightning is the scourge of the angel of death who wants to take the life of one of them. From this answer emerged new knowledge, namely angels.

    Next on the question why the earth shakes? once again they were unable to answer but with reasons of satisfaction they answered that the earth shakes because those who own the earth are angry, from that answer a new knowledge emerges that belongs to the earth, so they expand their knowledge by assuming that everything belongs to someone, they believe that the moon exists who have, who have the sun, who have the stars. Therefore, in order to get rid of the feeling of anxiety, those who own mountains, seas, roads and big trees are not angry, they perform ritual ceremonies either by reciting incantations, dancing, offerings, parties or carnivals. These knowledges are a combination of sensory experiences and beliefs and are called myths. These mythical stories are called legends.

    Some of the limitations of the human senses as the cause of the emergence of myths are as follows.

    1. Vision Tool
    Many objects move so fast that they are not clearly visible to the eye, the eye cannot distinguish objects. Likewise, if objects are far away, the eye cannot see clearly. For example, saying that the sky is blue, the deep sea water is bluish or greenish, the desert looks like a source of water, even though it is just a mirage.

    2. Hearing Devices
    Human hearing is limited to vibrations that have frequencies from 20 to 20,000 Hertz (audiosonic). Infrasound and ultrasonic waves are inaudible to the human ear. So that sometimes superstitious humans can hear the groaning of the grave, can dialogue with pets such as conversing with other humans, and so on.

    3. Smell and Taste Tool
    Humans can only distinguish 4 types of taste, namely sweet, sour, salty and bitter. The smell of perfume and other odors can be recognized by the nose when the concentration in the air is more than one ten millionth part. The sense of smell cannot distinguish food and gases that contain toxic substances.

    4. Taste Tool
    The sensory apparatus on human skin can distinguish between heat, cold, pressure, pain in which there are ruffini, passini, krause, meisner, and free nerves, but it is very relative or depends on conditions so it cannot be used as an appropriate observation tool.

    Why myths could be accepted for their truth at that time was due to several factors as follows:
    -Limited knowledge caused by limitations in sensing both directly and with tools.
    -The limitations of human reasoning at the time.
    -Her curiosity was fulfilled
    Meanwhile, based on the history of the development of the human spirit, both individually and as a group, according to Auguste Comte (1798–1857 AD), it took place in three stages as follows:

    -At the theological stage, humans try to seek and find the first cause and ultimate goal of everything, and are always associated with the supernatural. Natural phenomena that attract attention are always placed in relation to an absolute source. Humans have the assumption that every phenomenon is controlled and regulated by the gods or other supernatural powers. The metaphysical stage is the stage where humans are still looking for the ultimate cause and ultimate goal, but humans no longer rely on belief in the existence of supernatural powers, but on their own reason, namely reason which has been able to perform abstractions to discover the essence of things.

    -The positive or real stage is the stage where humans have been able to think positively or in real terms on the basis of the knowledge they have achieved which has been positively developed through observation, experimentation and comparative. The peak of the development of mythical thought was during the Babylonian period, c. 700–500 BC. At this time they were able to study the shape of the earth so that they thought that the earth was in the shape of a half ball, the earth as a stretch and the sky and the stars as a roof, even more amazing they already knew the sun’s orbit so they knew that every 365 days the sun circulates back to its original point and this is called the time of year which was popularized by the Roman Emperor named Julius Cesar.

    -Observation of the outer space had its own charm at that time, so that knowledge in this field was quite rapid, hence the knowledge of the star constellations that are now known, namely; constellation scorpio, virgo, pisces, leo, cancer, sagittarius, gemini and so on. These constellations are closely related to predictions of human destiny and are known as astrology. Because this knowledge is only predictive, imaginary, conjecture, and belief, this knowledge is called pseudo science, namely mythical knowledge associated with actual natural phenomena (similar to reality but not real).

    This false science greatly influenced Greek philosophers such as Thales (624-549 AD) who argued that this earth was a plate floating on water, he was also the first to propose the origin of matter and according to him all life originated from water. This is the beginning of a very big thought because it is able to divert mythical thinking that considers everything on this earth is the creation of gods. The influence of Thales’s thought has led the thinking of the Greeks to gradually abandon myths. Generations of Greek philosophers who have succeeded in contributing their thoughts include the following.

    -Anaximander argued that the sky you see is actually only half of it. The sky and everything in it orbits the earth. He succeeded in making a sundial using a stick perpendicular to the surface of the earth. Shadow sticks were used as timepieces (stick clocks) in the 70s and you can often find them in mosques to guide prayer times.

    -Anaximenes argues that the basic element of matter is water, this agrees with Thales. It has been developed that water is a form of matter that can change into fire and condense into soil. This concept became the beginning of the concept of transmutation of matter.

    -Herakleitos denied the concept of anaximenes, according to him it was fire that was the basis of the transmutation of matter, because without fire things would remain as they were.

    – Pythagoras argued that actually the basic elements of matter are composed of four basic elements, namely earth, fire, air, and water. Pythagoras is very famous as a mathematician and the discoverer of the Pythagorean Theorem.

    -Leucippos and Demokritos argue is that an object is split continuously will produce the smallest parts that can not be divided again. The smallest part is called Atomos or atom, the term atom is still used today even though the concept is not like this anymore.

    -Empedocles supporting Pythagoras about the four basic elements forming objects; earth, water, fire, and air. He developed this concept by introducing about insulating energy or attraction and repulsion, the two forces can separate or unite the basic elements that make up the object.

    -Plato, As a writer, he does not think materialistically like the previous philosophers. According to him, the diversity that is seen today is only a duplicate of all that is eternal and immaterial. The big elephant that you see is only an imperfect copy or duplicate, so the elephant’s idea is correct. Furthermore, this concept is known as Plato’s concept of nature.

    -Aristotle, He explained about a single substance called Hule as the basic building block of matter whose existence depends on conditions, so that it can turn into earth, water, air and fire which undergo transmutation due to cold, humid, hot and dry conditions. In hot and humid conditions the hule will take the form of fire, while in dry and cold conditions the hule will take the form of earth. He also believes that in this world there is no empty space. According to him, if there is empty space, it will automatically be filled with immaterial ether. An important teaching from Aristotle is that to seek the truth must be based on logic so that it is known as rationalism. The important concept is that he was the first to classify animals and put forward the concept of abiogenis (generation of spontaneous).

    -Ptolemy argued that the earth was round and balanced without pillars and the earth as the center of the solar system or geocentric (the sun and other objects rotating around the earth) is known as the Geocentric theory.
    -Ibn Shina famous in the west as Avicenna (11th century) is known as a medical expert.
    -Ibn Khaldun sociologist
    -Al Jebra mathematician
    -Al Razi, a pure rationalist who does not believe in revelations and prophets because according to him reason is enough to be able to distinguish good from bad, what is useful from what is useless with reason can also know God so according to him there is no need for revelations and prophets. He is known as a chemist (inventor of mercury) and medicine or medicine. At the end of his life, he became blind because he read too much and was influenced by chemical reactions

    -Ibnu Rusdy or Averous, a Muslim philosopher who translated Greek books into Arabic so that Arabic became the center of knowledge internationally which then changed the language into Latin and developed to the western world so that it is famous for the central library of the Al Hamra mosque, Cordoba (Spain).
    -Abu Musa Jabir Bin Hayyan, known as the Father of Chemistry
    -Umar Khayyam, known as a mathematician and astronomer.
    The human mindset continues to experience development, which is initiated by curiosity (curiosity) towards various natural phenomena that continue to show their activities and sometimes make people anxious, such as natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions, fires, droughts, floods and others. This stimulates humans to keep looking for answers and there is mythical thinking that relies on belief for satisfaction. In line with the development of thinking, myths began to be connected with actual natural phenomena to get predictions about human destiny, so it is known as pseudo science or also known as Astrology.

    In the Greek era, mythical thinking began to be abandoned so that rational thinkers (philosophy) appeared whose truth was only on the basis of ratios, so that natural concepts emerged, some of which can still be used and their truth recognized today. The Islamic world was no less behind when Greek philosophy began to die out, Islam shone in Persia giving birth to Muslim philosophers whose names were worldwide due to their scientific works which are still used as references for the development of science. C. SCOPE OF BASIC NATURAL SCIENCES (IAD)Basic Natural Sciences (IAD) is a natural science that studies only essential principles, so that the scope of Basic Natural Sciences (Basic Natural Sciences) broadly includes: 1. Physics (Physics)

    A science that studies inanimate or inanimate objects from the aspect of their form with temporary changes. Physics is classically divided into mechanics, heat, sound, light, waves, electricity, magnetism and mechanical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering and is included in the broad scope of earth and space sciences.

    2. Chemistry (Chemistry)
    A science that studies living and non-living things from the aspect of the composition of matter and changes – changes that are permanent. Chemistry is broadly divided into inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. The two sections basically discuss the overall basis, then followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    3. Biology (Biological Science)
    The science that studies living things and their symptoms. Biology is divided into branches, including:

    Botany is a branch of biology that studies the ins and outs of plants. Botany is a field of study in biology that specializes in studying all aspects of plant biology. Thus, all disciplines of biology are studied in botany to study growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, interactions with biotic and abiotic components, and plant evolution. People who study botany are known as Botanists.

    Zoology is a branch of biology that studies the structure, function, behavior and evolution of animals. This science includes, among others, comparative anatomy, animal psychology, molecular biology, ethology, behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, taxonomy, and paleontology. The scientific study of zoology began around the 16th century.

    -Morphology is a study of the outer structure or outer form of living things. Morphology is used by various branches of science. Literally, morphology means ‘knowledge of form’ (morphos).
    Here are some sciences that use the name morphology:
    • Morphology (linguistics), the study of morphemes in language.
    • Morphology (biology), the science of the forms of organisms, especially animals and plants and includes.
    • Geomorphology, the study of rocks and extraterrestrial forms.

    -Anatomy is the study of structure – in or form – in living things. Anatomy (derived from the Greek ἀνατομία anatomia, from ἀνατέμνειν anatemnein, yanmecut) is a branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things. There is also animal anatomy or zootomy and plant anatomy or fitotomy. Several branches of anatomy are comparative anatomy, histology, and human anatomy.

    -Physiology is a study of the function or physiology of body parts or organs of living things
    Cytology is a study of cells in depth including molecular structure and others.
    According to Abdullah Aly and Eny Rahma in their book Basic Natural Sciences that the scope
    The IAD is as follows:
    o The universe and the solar system.
    o Earth
    o Origin of life on earth.

    Whereas H. Abu Ahmadi and A. Supatmo grouped the scope of the IAD into five main topics, namely:
    -The birth of the universe.
    – Solar system problems.
    -The origin of life on earth.
    -Development of the variability of living things

    For a student as “The Agent of Change” he is required to have a broad perspective both in the social field, especially in the field of natural science, because in his social environment he also occupies the natural environment and he will encounter problems of natural knowledge that require reasoning so that he expected to be sensitive, responsive and able to take appropriate action on existing natural problems and be responsible for various problems in the development of Natural Science and Technology in addition to social and cultural problems in society.
    IAD teaching objectives are:
    -Introducing basic concepts in science.
    -Provides insight into knowledge of understanding and appreciation of objects and ways of thinking as well as ways of approaching science and technology.
    -Provides provisions to utilize materials and ways of thinking, ways of approaching and results in science and technology.
    – Develop harmonious interaction and exact and non-exact science disciplines.

    The impact of science and technology on human life such as the many inventions such as the discovery of light energy, treatment with sophisticated tools so that it can simplify and benefit human life a lot. following :
    -Develop an appreciation of science and technology for non-exact students.
    -Encouraging and developing the benefits of basic natural sciences in self-development, knowledge and profession of non-exact students.

by Abdullah Sam
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